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280 Class Review Sheet Exam 3 1 What is the difference between modifiable and unmodifiable host factors Modifiable host factor Risk factors that can be changed or treated high blood pressure smoking cholesterol LDL and HDL cholesterol Diabetes Unmodifiable host factor Risk factors you cannot change age race and ethnicity gender and family history The communicable infectious disease process 1 What is the definition of a communicable infectious disease Communicable disease a disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector Any disease transmitted from one person or animal to another 2 What are the three key elements in the process of transmission 3 In addition to the 3 key elements in the triad what is the portal of entry Portal of entry how an infection enters through blood sexual contact and 4 What are the 5 possible modes of transmission for communicable open wound diseases Airborne Direct person to person Insect or animal Food or waterborne Mother to child 5 What are bacteria 6 What is E coli E Coli Salmonella Step Throat Lyme Disease Ear infections Flu Chicken pox Measles One celled organism spread by contamination person to person E Coli a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans other animals where it usually causes no harm Severe food poisoning 7 What are some examples of communicable diseases caused by bacteria 8 What are viruses and how are they different from bacteria Virus a cellular not cells and cannot reproduce on their own Virus are different than bacteria because they must have a living host to grow when bacteria can replicate on non living sources 9 What are some examples of diseases caused by a virus 10 What are protozoa and how are they transmitted What is the agent for the protozoa that cause malaria What environmental factor must be present for malaria to spread Protozoa complex single cell organisms that live in water Malaria is spread through protozoa which are spread through mosquitoes 11 What is meant by the life cycle of a parasitic worm The life cycle of a parasitic worm start with an egg primary host contracts the egg and hatches the larva secondary host eats meat with the larva larva grows in the new host then produces new eggs and starts cycle again 12 What causes yeast infections athlete s foot and ringworm 13 What are some unmodifiable risk factors for the transmission of 14 What are some modifiable risk factors Nutritional status stress diet and exercise Fungi communicable disease AOE sex 15 Who has low immunity Young children pandemic to occur at a particular time 17 What is nanotechnology 16 Define epidemic and pandemic What 3 events have to be in place for a Epidemic widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community Pandemic a disease prevalent over a whole country or world The branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerance of less than 100 nanometers especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules HIV AIDS TB and Malaria 1 What is Millennium Development Goal 6 MDG 6 combat HIV AIDS Malaria and other diseases 2 Does the world presently have the financial and technological resource to greatly reduce the effects of AIDS Malaria and TB If yes what prevents that from happening World has resource to bring essential health services to all Developing countries prevent these effective interventions 3 What are the following and what do they do PEPFAR Plan for AIDS relief 2004 aid to increase antiviral treatment increase prevention of MTC transmission improve blood safety funds to TB Malaria abstinence programs funding for treatment and care The President s Global Health Initiative builds off of PEPFAR does more to improve health systems around the world to implement women and girl centered approach to increase strategic coordination to strengthen global health initiative 4 Have the rates of new HIV infections increased decreased or stayed the same since PEPFAR began What part of the world has been an exception to this trend Rates of HIV AIDS have decreased overall but rates of new HIV infective increase women 5 Why is access to antiretroviral therapy especially important for pregnant Breastfeeding by an infected mother increases the risk of 5 20 6 Who among the world s population is at greatest risk for malaria and where are rates of malaria highest See Toward a Malaria Free World video Among African Children 7 Have major increases in funding improved the control of malaria What two preventive measures have been most important Yes Insecticide treated mosquito nets long lasting insecticidal nets Indoor spraying with residual insecticides 8 Has the MDG goal of halting and reversing the incidence of tuberculosis been achieved yet What area of the world is an exception to this No by 2015 All regions except Africa and Europe Bioterrorism agents 1 What is bioterrorism Define and describe the 3 categories of bioterrorism Bioterrorism terrorism involving the release of toxic biological agents Category A highest priority o Pose greatest threat o Easily spread from person to person o Result in high death rates o Might cause public panic social distribution o Remove special action for public health and preparedness o EX ANTHRAX Naturally occurring bacteria in soil from animals to humans Breathing in spores CDC does biosense help ensure authorities are aware of Inallation anthrax most severe Category B second highest attack o Moderately easy to spread o Result in moderate illness and low death rates o Require specific enhancements of CDC laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoring o EX food safety threats salmonella water safety threats cholera all can be fatal but can be treated Category C third highest priority including emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future because of o Easily available o Easily produced and spread o Potential for high mobility and mortality rates health impact o Emerging infectious diseases such as new varieties of hantavirus 2 What did the anthrax attacks of 2001 in the U S demonstrate Naturally occurring bacteria in soil from animals to humans Breathing in spores Inallation anthrax most severe CDC does biosense help ensure authorities are aware of attack 3 Re watch Anthrax Killer Strain from the CDC What does CDC stand for and what does CDC do to prevent disease outbreaks video CDC centers for disease control CDC to prevent outbreaks biosense to help ensure authoritities are aware of

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UMD FMSC 280 - Class Review Sheet Exam 3

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