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280 Class Review Sheet Exam 31. What is the difference between modifiable and unmodifiable host factors?Modifiable host factor: Risk factors that can be changed or treated: high blood pressure, smoking, cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, DiabetesUnmodifiable host factor: Risk factors you cannot change,: age, race and ethnicity, gender and family historyThe communicable (infectious) disease process1. What is the definition of a communicable (infectious) disease?- Communicable disease: a disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Any disease transmitted from one person or animal to another 2. What are the three key elements in the process of transmission?3. In addition to the 3 key elements in the triad, what is the portal of entry?- Portal of entry: how an infection enters, through blood, sexual contact and open wound 4. What are the 5 possible modes of transmission for communicable diseases?- Airborne- Direct (person to person)- Insect or animal- Food or waterborne- Mother to child5. What are bacteria?- One celled organism, spread by contamination, person to person6. What is E. coli?- E. Coli: a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans other animals, where it usually causes no harm. Severe food poisoning7. What are some examples of communicable diseases caused by bacteria?- E. Coli- Salmonella- Step Throat- Lyme Disease- Ear infections 8. What are viruses and how are they different from bacteria?- Virus: a cellular, not cells and cannot reproduce on their own- Virus are different than bacteria because they must have a living host to grow when bacteria can replicate on non-living sources 9. What are some examples of diseases caused by a virus?- Flu- Chicken pox- Measles10.What are protozoa and how are they transmitted? What is the agent for theprotozoa that cause malaria? What environmental factor must be present for malaria to spread?- Protozoa: complex single cell organisms that live in water - Malaria is spread through protozoa which are spread through mosquitoes 11.What is meant by the life cycle of a parasitic worm? - The life cycle of a parasitic worm: start with an egg, primary host contractsthe egg and hatches the larva, secondary host eats meat with the larva, larva grows in the new host then produces new eggs and starts cycle again12.What causes yeast infections, athlete’s foot, and ringworm?- Fungi13.What are some unmodifiable risk factors for the transmission of communicable disease?- AOE, sex 14.What are some modifiable risk factors?- Nutritional status, stress, diet and exercise 15.Who has low immunity?- Young children 16.Define epidemic and pandemic. What 3 events have to be in place for a pandemic to occur?- Epidemic: widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a communityat a particular time - Pandemic: a disease prevalent over a whole country or world 17.What is nanotechnology?- The branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerance of lessthan 100 nanometers, especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules HIV/AIDS, TB, and Malaria1. What is Millennium Development Goal #6?- MDG #6: combat HIV/ AIDS/ Malaria and other diseases 2. Does the world presently have the financial and technological resource to greatly reduce the effects of AIDS, Malaria, and TB? If yes, what prevents that from happening?- World has resource to bring essential health services to all- Developing countries prevent these effective interventions 3. What are the following and what do they do?- PEPFAR: Plan for AIDS relief 2004, aid to increase antiviral treatment, increase prevention of MTC transmission, improve blood safety, funds to TB/ Malaria, abstinence programs, funding for treatment and care- The President’s Global Health Initiative: builds off of PEPFAR, does more to improve health systems around the world, to implement women and girl centered approach, to increase strategic coordination, to strengthen global health initiative4. Have the rates of new HIV infections increased, decreased, or stayed the same since PEPFAR began? What part of the world has been an exception to this trend?- Rates of HIV/ AIDS have decreased overall, but rates of new HIV infectiveincrease 5. Why is access to antiretroviral therapy especially important for pregnant women?- Breastfeeding by an infected mother increases the risk of 5-20% 6. Who among the world’s population is at greatest risk for malaria and whereare rates of malaria highest? (See Toward a Malaria Free World video)- Among African Children 7. Have major increases in funding improved the control of malaria? What two preventive measures have been most important? - Yes- Insecticide treated mosquito nets: long lasting insecticidal nets - Indoor spraying with residual insecticides8. Has the MDG goal of halting and reversing the incidence of tuberculosis been achieved yet? What area of the world is an exception to this?- No by 2015- All regions except Africa and Europe Bioterrorism1. What is bioterrorism? Define and describe the 3 categories of bioterrorism agents.- Bioterrorism: terrorism involving the release of toxic biological agents - Category A: highest priority o Pose greatest threato Easily spread from person-to-persono Result in high death rateso Might cause public panic, social distributiono Remove special action for public health and preparedness o EX: ANTHRAX Naturally occurring bacteria in soil from animals to humans Breathing in spores Inallation anthrax: most severe CDC does biosense help ensure authorities are aware of attack - Category B: second highest o Moderately easy to spreado Result in moderate illness and low death rateso Require specific enhancements of CDC laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoringo EX: food safety threats (salmonella), water safety threats (cholera), all can be fatal but can be treated - Category C: third highest priority including emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future because ofo Easily availableo Easily produced and spreado Potential for high mobility and mortality rates health impacto Emerging infectious diseases such as new varieties of hantavirus 2. What did the anthrax attacks of 2001 in the U.S. demonstrate? - Naturally occurring bacteria in soil from animals to humans- Breathing in spores- Inallation anthrax: most severe- CDC does biosense help ensure authorities are aware of attack 3. Re-watch Anthrax Killer

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UMD FMSC 280 - Class Review Sheet Exam 3

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