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FMSC 280: Reading Guide for Exam 3Jacobsen, Chapter 9, Control of Infectious Diseases 1. What are the 5 “modes of transmission” for communicable diseases?- Direct transmission – person to person when susceptible person touches an infectious person’s blood or other bodily fluids and then touches a portal of entry- Airborne - when pathogens are aerosolized or suspended in the air and people breathe contaminated air- Vector borne: infections spread by insects- Fecal oral transmission: occurs when people ingests products contaminated with fecal material from infectious animals and humans- Vertical transmission: mother to child during pregnancy, or delivery to baby through breast milk2. What are the stages in the natural history of a disease?- Usual timeline from exposure to a particular agent to infection to either recovery or deathi. Infectivity: capacity of an infectious agent to cause infection to susceptible human1. Measured with secondary attack rate: average number of other people that one contagious person infectsii. Latent phase/ incubation period: immediately after infection when the agent multiplies in the hostiii. Disease: occurs when infected person develops symptoms or illness – not all infections cause diseaseiv. Pathogenicity: capacity of an infectious agent to cause disease in an infected human and measured by the proportion of individuals with laboratory confirmed infection who become illv. Virulence: ability of an infectious agent to cause disease or death in host – measured by proportion of severe or fatal cases among all people who have disease3. What is the role of the immune system in the natural history of disease?- Immune system fights off pathogens4. What is the meaning of the following terms?- Portal of entry: mouth, eyes, nose or another hole disease can get into the body- Reservoir: environment home for infectious agent- Cycle of infection: how infectious agent cycles between different species- Intermediate host: host that harbors the parasite for short transition period when some of the development is completed - Secondary attack rate: average number of people that the contagious person affects- Incubation period: immediately after infections, infectious agents multiplies in the hose but the infected individual does not feel sick5. What type of agent (bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungus, parasite) causes each of the following infectious diseases?- Guinea worm disease -parasite- Measles - virus- E. Coli - bacteria- Schistosomiasis - parasite- Tuberculosis - bacteria- Malaria – protozoan from mosquitos- Lyme disease –bacteria from ticks- Polio - virus- Influenza - virus6. What is a vector?- Insects that spread disease17. What is KAP and what does it mean in terms of healthy behaviors?- Triad of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs- Once someone understands why a behavior is healthy or believes it is worth the effort to make a change it is easier to engage in healthy behaviors8. What does the term surveillance mean in the context of communicable disease? What is sentinel surveillance?- System track infectious disease reports from hospitals and other information sources to look for patterns and possible outbreaks or clusters of diseases- Run by government and use continuous monitoring in population so that changes can be tracked quickly and appropriate control measures implemented9. What is the difference between the elimination of a communicable disease and eradication of a communicable disease?- Eradication: achieved when there is no risk of infection or disease in any part of world even in absence of immunization or other control measuresi. Must include intervention, that effectively interrupts the chain of transmissionii. Disease must be highly pathogenic so that people who contract disease have obvious symptoms and can easily be trackediii. Must affect humans- Elimination: when control measures remove all risk of new infection in a region10. Define endemic, epidemic and pandemic.- Endemic: disease is always present in the population- Epidemic: outbreak; when disease is occurring more often than usual and more than a few sporadic occurrences of disease- Pandemic: worldwide epidemicJacobsen, ch. 10, Global Infectious Disease Initiatives1. What does AIDS stand for?a. Acquired immunodeficiency virus2. What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? At what point does HIV become AIDS?a. HIV is a viral infection spread when body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluid or breast milk are exchanged during sexual contact, the sharing of needs, mother to child and during childbirth or breastfeedingb. AIDS is a collection of symptoms that occur as a result of the destruction of the immune system cells by the HIV virus3. What is an antiretroviral?a. Keeping the viral count low to slow the progression of symptoms4. What is HAART and what do the letters in HAART stand for?a. Highly active antiretroviral therapy b. Best current treatment for HIV infection; consists of combinations of several drugs5. What is an opportunistic infection?a. Disease that occurs in people with AIDS and only occur hen the body’s immune system is weakened enough to give the infectious agents an opportunity to invade6. What are universal precautions?a. Wearing gloves when caring for a sick person or cleaning up a spill or soiled laundry7. Can HIV be transmitted from a mother to her infant in breast milk?a. Yes 8. What is the difference between latent and active tuberculosis?a. Active is contagiousb. Latent means the person is infected but does not have the active disease – not contagious9. What is the relationship between AIDS and TB?2a. People with HIV are more likely to develop TV and this is the leading cause of death to people with AIDSb. TB and AIDs are linked10. What is DOTS and what do the letters stand for?a. Directly observed therapy, short course – protocol for the treatment that WHO recommends11. Why is antibiotic-resistant bacteria a problem in TB treatment? a. Because people are not finishing their dosages of drugs and therefore are making new strains of TB that cannot be treated12. What causes malaria?a. Parasitic infection cause by protozoa of the Plasmodium species13. Who is most at risk for severe complications and death from malaria?a. Children and pregnant womenJacobsen, Ch 7 The Global Impact of Non-Communicable Disease1. What is a “non-communicable” disease? Why are they often called “chronic” diseases? What causes them?a. Medical condition or

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UMD FMSC 280 - Reading Guide for Exam 3

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