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FMSC 280 Reading Guide for EXAM 2 Jacobsen, Ch. 8, Health effects of environmental change1. What are risks associated with the home environment? a. Harmful construction materialsb. Insulation with asbestosc. Electrical wiring d. Windows without screens letting bugs ine. High levels of radonf. Chemicals in the kitchen or other rooms2. What risks associated with the environment are linked to diarrheal disease and other infections? With respiratory infections, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer?a. Diarrheal: contaminated water, poor sanitation and hygiene, inadequate management of wasteb. Respiratory: air pollution including from indoor cooking over fires3. Summarize the five key aspects of water access.a. Quality: water must be clean enough to drink safelyb. Quantity: must be available so people can stay hydrated and cleanc. Reliability: the water source must be available and functioning at all timesi. Appropriate technology: simple enough that it can be fixed by localsd. Cost: water must be affordable4. What is the minimum amount of water needed by one person each day for survival? For healthy living?a. Survival: 15-20 liters – 1-3 liters of this for drinking, 2-3 liters for food prep, 6-7 liters for personal cleanliness, 4-6 liters for laundryb. 50 liters of water recommended for healthy living5. What is sanitation?a. Disposal of human excreta6. What are the 6 Fs?a. Factors contributing to diarrheal diseaseb. Feces are not exposed properly; they can contaminate fields, and fluids. Fecal matter can then get onto hands and fingers and transport it to foods. Flies can spread it to foods too.7. What do the best programs for reducing diarrhea and parasitism combine?a. Improved water and sanitation systems with health education to promote frequent hand washing and consistent use of latrines instead of open defecation8. Why is energy a necessity?a. YES, for cooking food and boiling water for safe consumption, providing a sourceof heat when temperatures are low, and providing a source of light at night9. What is COPD and who is at highest risk? What are the risks associated with use of solid fuels? a. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorderb. High for women and children who spend several hours a day near fires while cooking10. What is toxicology? What are carcinogens? Teratogens? Ecotoxicology?a. Toxicology: study of harmful effects that chemicals and other environmental hazards like radiation have on living thingsb. Carcinogens: cause genetic mutations that lead to cancerc. Teratogens: cause birth defectsd. Ecotoxicology: examines impact of toxic exposure on populations, communities and ecosystems11. What does the Kyoto Protocol ask countries to commit to?a. Agreement made under the Framework Convention on Climate Change, asks countries to commit to voluntarily reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases12. What kinds of environmental damage are caused by industry?a. Pollutions and toxins can be released in the air hurting the air quality13. What are the ways in which Bangladesh has attempted to solve the problem of arsenic-contaminated well water?a. Surface water is contaminated with feces an initiative by UNICEF promoted the installation of tube wells that tap ground water – only later did they realize this water contained arsenopyritesb. Arsenic contaminated water causes change in skin color, formation of hard skin patches, skin cancer, lung cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, liver damage, gangrene, peripheral vascular diseasec. Solutions: use of low cost filter, collect rain water, dig deeper wells14. Why is DDT controversial as a way of preventing malaria?a. It is a persistent organic pollutant and travels up the food chain killing birds and fishJacobsen, Ch 14, pp 347-357 Disasters and Health 1. What are the four critical needs after a humanitarian incident?a. Waterb. Food c. Shelterd. Essential health services2. What is a nonderogable right and what is not?a. Human rights that are irrevocable b. Ex: freedom from slavery and torturec. Some rights may be temporarily suspended under certain circumstances to protectcommunity. Ex. freedom of movement of people with highly contagious infections may be temporarily limited during an epidemicd. If rights are derogated during or immediately after a critical incident, new rules must not be discriminatory, and full rights should be restored as soon as possible3. What are the distinguishing features of a complex humanitarian emergency from a naturaldisaster?a. Complex humanitarian emergency occurs when civil conflict or war cause mass migration of civilian populations, food insecurity and long term public health concerns – remain in acute phase for years or decadesb. Natural disaster usually create an immediate period of acute need but quickly transition into recovery mode4. Define the following:a. Refugee: person who has been forced to involuntarily move because security concerns – must cross a borderb. Internally displaced person (IDP): fled their home community because of civil war, famine, natural disaster or another crisis but did not cross into another country5. What are the health risk factors often experienced by refugees and internally displaced persons?a. Cycle of displacement: special health concerns, which begins at onset of migration and continues until a lasting solution is implementedb. Economic concernsc. Health concerns with being new people in community d. Emergency interventions focus on provision of water, food, sanitation, shelter, fuel, and health care for sick, pregnant and vulnerable individualse. Long term interventions: treat malnutrition, address violence and security, providetherapy for mental health problems6. What are the 4 R’s?a. Reduction: (mitigation): preemptive measures to protect people from hazards – best way to enable a smooth response and recovery with any kind of disasterb. Readiness: (preparedness): preparation for respondingc. Response: response to imminent ongoing or immediately past threatd. Recovery: continued efforts should focus on rebuilding affected communitiesJacobsen, Ch 11, Global Nutrition1. What are each of the following and why are they needed?- Macronutrient: carbs, protein, fats, oils  body needs these in relatively large quantities to provide energy- Micronutrient: vitamins, minerals  body needs in smaller amounts- Complex carbohydrate: (classified as starches) made up of long chains

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UMD FMSC 280 - Reading Guide for EXAM 2

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