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MTC BIO 210 - Review Questions for Muscles and Muscle Physiology

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Review Questions for Muscles and Muscle Physiology1. Draw out a relaxed sarcomere and a contracted sarcomere – make sure you can label all the different parts of the sarcomere. Do not forget the the I and A bands, M lines, H zone, actin and myosin, etc……… should be able to find a place for all of the parts of a sarcomere that we talked about in class.2. Write/Draw a representative picture of an action potential – make sure to label and list where the depolarization, repolarization, threshold and stimulus are. 3. Write/Draw muscle twitch – can you label a graph of muscle twitch? Make sure you know what muscle fatigue, tetanus (incomplete vs. complete), wave summation.a. if the stimulus is very intense and powerful then the muscle contraction will be (strong, weak).b. If the stimulus is weak, then the muscle contraction will be (strong, weak).c. If there are a lot of stimuli, muscle contraction will occur (less frequently, more frequently) until the muscle reaches fatigue.4. What is the difference between isotonic and isometric contraction? Can you give an example?5. How many types of levers are there? What are they? Can you give an example of each in the human body.6. Describe in detail the thick filaments.7. Describe in detail the thin filaments.8. What are T-tubules?9. What are terminal cisterns?10. Describe in detail the NMJ. Describe what happens at the NMJ if a motor neuron brings a signal to a muscleto tell it to contract.11. How are thick and thin filaments organized?12. What is the importance of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle contraction? You must include where the Ca2+ comes from, concentration, and how it interacts with troponin.13. How many subunits of troponin are there? What are they and what does each one do?14. List and describe each of the different types of fascicles? Find one skeletal muscle that represents each type of fascicles.15. Describe in detail sliding filament theory.16. Describe in detail excitation contraction coupling for a skeletal muscle.17. What is the importance of ATP in muscle contraction?18. Describe in detail excitation contraction in smooth muscle.19. Compare and contrast skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.20. what is muscular dystrophy? How many types of muscular dystrophy are there?21. What is MG?22. What is ptosis?23. What is diplopia?24. What is MPS?25. What is Gower’s maneuver or sign?26. What is dysarthria?27. Define action potential (AP), membrane potential (MP), and resting membrane potential (RMP).28. How is RMP maintained?29. What causes RMP to occur?30. What muscle has dense bodies associated with it? What do they do?31. What is dystrophin and why is it important?32. What is the functional significance of calmodulin?33. What are cross bridges? How are they formed?34. What is an ATPase? Why are ATPases important for myosin?35. What is the NA/K ATPase used for?36. What is the importance of the Ca2+ ATPase?37. List the RMPs for skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.38. What cell has a RMP of -70 mV?39. What type of transport is diffusion?40. Describe a VG ion channel and give a general description of how it works.41. What types of receptors bind ACh?42. Define:Sarcolemma, repolarization, depolarization, threshold, excitability, synaptic knob, terminal bouton, neurotransmitter, ACh, sarcoplasmic reticulum, Z discs, isotropic, anisotropic, NMJ, motor unit, muscle twitch, muscle tone, lever, fast twitch, slow twitch, origin, insertion.43. What are the three different types of methods in which muscles can generate ATP? Compare and contrast each type of energy pathway.44. How are muscles names.45. Make sure you know each of the different types of selected skeletal muscles and know what they do.46. What is the importance of the diaphragm muscle? What makes it unique compared to the other skeletal muscles?47. What is postexercise oxygen consumption?48. What is muscle hypertrophy?49. Which muscle has the ability to regenerate and undergo mitosis throughout life?50. What is aerobic endurance?51. What can creatine phosphate be used for?52. What does creatine kinase

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