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MTC BIO 210 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study GuideExam 3 will cover Chapters 8-10- For each chapter, use your study guides and notes to studyChapter 8 Key Concepts:Know the 3 structural types of joints and be able to name examples of each and type of function (Table 8.1 and 8.2 is helpful) Structural Types:- Synovial-a layer of connective tissue that lines the cavities of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae and makes synovial fluid, which has a lubricating function.- Cartilaginous-articulating bones are united by cartilageo Synchondroses-plate of hyaline cartilage uniting a bone Epiphyseal plates in long bones of childreno Symphyses-a joint where fibrocartilage unites a bone Interverbal joints Pubic symphysis- Fibrous-the bones are joined by collagen fibers of connective tissueo Sutures-short fibers-found in skullo Synostoses-closed sutures, “bony junctions”o Syndesmoses-bones connected exclusively by ligaments, cords or fibrous tissueo Gomphoses-peg-in-socket fibrous joint ex-articulation of a tooth with its bony alveolar socketFunctional types:- Synarthroses-not movable joint- Diarthroses-freely movable joint- Amphiarthroses-semi movable joint- Know Figure 8.3 and be able to label- Know the parts of the synovial joint and what each doeso Articular cartilage-glassy smooth hyaline cartilage that covers the opposing bone surfaces, spongy cushions absorb compression placed on the joint o Joint (articular) cavity-potentional space because it normally is nonexistent but can expand if fluid accumulates, contains synovial fluido Articular capsule- has a tough external fibrous layer that strenghtns the joints so that bones are not pulled aparto Synovial fluid-occupies all free spaces within a joint capsuleo Reinforcing ligaments-strenghthened by bandlike ligaments which most of the time are capular ligaments which are thickened parts of the fibrous layero Nerves and blood supplies-richly supplied with sensory nerve fivers- Know the movements described in Figure 8.5 and be able to match a description with a movement- Know the 6 types of synovial joints and give a location of eacho Gliding/plane-glides over another joint Intercarpal jointso Hinge Elbow joint Knee fingerso Pivot Radius ulnao Condylar Knuckles, wristo Saddle Thumb shouldero Ball and socket Hip joint Shoulder joint- Know the following disorders and diseases described in Chapter 8:o Cartilage tears Occur when a meniscus is subjected to compression and shear stress at the same time Damaged cartilage has to be removedo Sprains Ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn Torn ends can be sewn together Replace with graphso Arthritis (all types) Inflammation or damage to joints Osteoarthritis-most common arthritis, “wear and tear” Rheumatoid Arthritis-30-50, joint tenderness and stiffness Gouty Arthritis-Gout is a type of arthritis that causes inflammation, usually in one joint, that begins suddenly. Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of needle-like crystals of uric acid in a jointo Dislocations Occurs when bones are forced out of alignmento Lyme disease Inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by the bite of ticks that live on mice or deero Bursitis Inflammation of bursa caused by a blow or friction Anti-inflammatory drugso Tendonitis Inflammation of tendon sheaths Ice and anti-inflmatory drugs- Chapter 9 Key Concepts:Know the 3 types of muscle and be able to describe each- Skeletalo Organs that attach to and cover the skeletono Have striationso Voluntaryo mulinucleated- Smooth Cardiaco Propel blood through blood vessels to all parts of the bodyo Walls of hearto Striated- Know the Characteristics of Muscle Tissueo Excitability-ability of a cell to receive and respond to a stimulus by changing its membrane potetntialo Contractibility-ability to shorten forcibily when adequately stimulatedo Extensibility-ability to extend or stretcho Elasticity-ability of a muscle cell to recoil and resume its resting length after stretching- Know the parts of a skeletal muscle including the connective tissue sheathso Epimysium-ousside of muscle, dense irrgualr CT that surrounds the whole muscleo Perimysium-surroundinf each fascicle is a layer of dense irregular CTo Endomysium-wipsy sheath of CT that suurounds each induvial muscle fiber.- Know Table 9.1 and be able to put the parts of a muscle in order from simplest (myofilament) to most complex (muscle)o Myofilament, sarcomere, myofibril, muscle fiber, fascicle, muscle- Know the parts of a sarcomere and be able to label (9.3 bold faced terms and Figure 9.2) - Know all parts of a myofilament and be able to describe the steps of sliding filament model of contraction- Section 9.4: Know all parts of the neuromuscular junction, the purpose of Acetylcholine and all the steps in excitation contraction coupling (Figure 9.7 and Focus Figures 9.1-9.3)- Know the difference between muscle twitch, tetanus and toneo Muscle twitch-response of a muscle to a single stimulationo Muscle tone-slightly contractedo- Know the 3 phases of a myogramo Recording of contractile activity consisting of one or more recorded lines called tracingso Latent period-first few milliseconds following stimulation when excitation occurs, cross bridges begin to cycle but muscle tension is not yet measurable to myogram to show a responseo Period of contraction-cross bridges are active, myogram tracings rise to a peako Period of relaxation-pumps Ca back into SR, because the number of active cross bridges is declining, contractile force is declining. Muscle tension decreases to zero and tracing returns to baseline- Know the difference between isometric and isotonic contractiono Isotonic-if the muscle tension developed overcomes the load and muscle shortening occurso Isometric-if muscle tension develops but the load is not moved- Know the difference between anaerobic respiration and aerobic respirationo Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen, produces a large amount of energy. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as the waste products.o Anaerobic respiration takes place without the use of oxygen, produces small amounts of energy. Alcohol or lactic acid or other compounds are produced as waste products depending on the kind of cells that are active.- Define glycolysiso the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.- What triggers lactic acid fermentation?o Not enough oxygen- Know the

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