New version page

MTC BIO 210 - BIO211 Study Guide for EXAM 1

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 19 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 19 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

BIO211 Study Guide for EXAM 11. Know the definition of a hormone, the types, and the importance of the types (bound, 2nd messengers, etc.)a. Hormone-long-distance chemical signals secreted by cells that travel in the blood or lymphb. Amino acid-based hormones-Most hormones are of this variety. Amines, thyroxine, peptide, and protein hormonesc. Steroids-Synthesized from cholesterol, Gonadal and adrenocortical hormonesd. Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid–based hormones except thyroid hormone)i. Act via G protein second messengers-Plasma membrane receptorii. Cannot enter celle. Lipid-soluble hormones (steroid and thyroid hormones – even though it is an amine)-can enter the celli. Act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genesii. Can enter cellf. 2nd messengeri. Cyclic AM1. -Hormone (first messenger) 2. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (second messenger) 3. How do we change metabolism of cell? Change proteing. Hormone circulate blood in 2 forms-bound and freei. Free- Steroids and thyroid hormone (lipid-soluble) are attached to plasma proteins (bound)ii. All others (water-soluble) are unencumbered (free without carriers)2. Know how hormones interacta. Changes metabolism of cell-changes how cell reactsb. Humoral stimuli (fluid/blood)- Changing blood levels of ions and nutrients directly stimulate secretion of hormonesc. Neural stimuli-Nerve fibers stimulate hormone released. Hormonal stimuli-Hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormonesi. Hypothalamic–pituitary–target endocrine organ feedback loop1. Hypothalamus is going to send signal to pituitary then pituitary will send it to target cell Interaction of hormones at target cellse. Permissiveness – one hormone cannot exert its effects without another hormone being presentf. Synergism – more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell causes amplificationg. Antagonism – one or more hormones opposes the action of another hormone3. Receptors are specific and saturated 4. Know function of endocrine systema. Reproductionb. Growth and developmentc. Maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of bloodd. Regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balancee. Mobilization of body defenses5. Be able to recognize the endocrine gland, target site, releasing stimuli, major actions and any disorders (know disorder and know symptoms) for each of the following hormones:a. ADH- ADH helps to avoid dehydration or water overload- Prevents urine formation, Hypothalamic osmoreceptors monitor the solute concentration of the blood-the amount of water and the relationship amount of solute in the blood (osmolarity)i. Diabetes insipidus-Hyposecretion of ADH- Huge output of urine and intense thirstii. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)- Hypersecretion of ADH- Leads to fluid retention, headache and disorientation due to brain edema, weight gainb. oxytocin-positive feedback system, Strong stimulant of uterine contractions during childbirth, Triggers milk ejection (“letdown” reflex) in women producing milk, Plays a role in sexual arousal and orgasm and sexual satisfaction in males and nonlactating females, “Walkers or runners” highc. ANP- Heart-Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) decreases blood Na+ concentration, therefore blood pressure and blood volumed. FSH- stimulate production of sperm, stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production- Triggered by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)e. GH- increases Blood sugar, stimulates most cells, but major targets are bone and skeletal muscle, stimulates most cells, but major targets are bone and skeletalmuscle, Most secreted: During first 2 hours of deep sleep, After vigorous exercise,After high protein meals, Hypoglycemiai. Hypersecretion of GH-In children results in gigantism-Can reach heights of 8 feetii. In adults’ results in acromegaly-Overgrowth of hands, feet, and faceiii. Hyposecretion of GH-In children results in pituitary dwarfism-only 4 ft tallf. Thyroxine-T4 iodine atoms, Major metabolic hormone, increases metabolic rate and heat production (calorigenic effect) by oxidizing glucose i. Myxedema1. Hypothyroidism (hyposecretion) in adults2. Causes low metabolic rate, coldness, constipation, puffy eyes, thick and/or dry skin, edema, lethargy, mental sluggishnessii. Congenital hypothyroidism or cretinism1. Can be genetic deficiency of the fetal thyroid or maternal factors like lack of dietary iodine2. Causes the same as myxedema but retardation instead of just mental sluggishnessiii. Toxic goiter (Grave’s disease)1. Hyperthyroidism created by autoantibodies which mimic TSH causing thyroid hypersecretion2. Causes high metabolism, sweating, rapid and irregular heartbeat, nervousness, weight loss, exophthalmos3. Exophthalmos may result eyes protrude as tissue behind eyes becomes edematous and fibrousg. cortisol -stress hormone- Released in response to ACTH, patterns of eating and activity, and stress, Help the body resist stress by: Keeping blood sugar levels relatively constant, Maintain blood pressure by increasing action of vasoconstrictors, Promotes rises in blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids-----Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates)i. Hypersecretion—Cushing’s syndrome/disease1. Hyperglycemia, depresses cartilage/bone formation and immune system; inhibits inflammation; disrupts neural, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal function2. overuse of corticosteroids3. Cushingoid signs: “moon” face and “buffalo hump”4. Treatment: discontinuation of glucocorticoid drugs (arthritis, allergies) ii. Glucocorticoid hyposecretion-Addison’s diseaseh. aldosterone-retain sodium and secrete potassium- Mineralocorticoidsi. Hypersecretion- aldosteronism1. Hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+2. Excessive excretion of K+ leading to muscle weakness (eventually paralysis), and eventually myocardial infarctionsii. Hyposecretion-Addison’s disease1. Hyposecretion of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids2. Decrease in Na+ levels and glucose3. Results in loss of weight, severe dehydration, hypotension, bronzing of the skin (i. LH- Luteinizing hormone (LH)- Triggered by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)i. In females1. LH works with FSH to cause maturation of the ovarian follicle2. LH works alone to trigger ovulation3. LH promotes synthesis and release of estrogens and progesteroneii. In males1. LH is also referred to as interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)2. LH


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view BIO211 Study Guide for EXAM 1 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view BIO211 Study Guide for EXAM 1 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?