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MTC BIO 210 - bio 210 final review

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Biology 210Final Exam Review SheetChapter 11. Anatomy: the study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to oneanotherphysiology: the study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities homeostasis: maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in the environment. Provides a dynamic state of equilibriummetabolism: all chemical reactions that occur in body cells. Catabolism and anabolismstimulus: positive feedback2. Be able to list the structural levels of organization from simplest to most complex. Be able to explain each level.a. atomsb. moleculesc. cells d. tissuese. organsf. organ systemsg. organisms3. Differentiate between negative feedback and positive feedback. Be able to recognize examples of each. a. negative feedback- most feedback mechanisms in body (~95%)- Response reduces or shuts off original stimulusa) variable changes in opposite direction of initial change- examplesa) regulation of body temp. (a nervous system mechanism)b) regulation of blood glucose by insulin (an endocrine system mechanism)b. positive feedback - response enhances or exaggerates original stimulus - may exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect- Usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustmenta) enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin b) platelet plug formation and blood clotting4. Differentiate between visceral and parietal membranes. Name the fluid found between these membranes.a. parietal serosa lines internal body cavity walls - internal surface of the body wallb. visceral serosa covers internal organs (viscera)- covers the external surface of the organs within the cavityc. these layers are separated by a slit-like cavity filled with serous fluidChapter 21. atom: unique building blocks for each element. They give each element its physical and chemical properties. Smallest particles of an element with properties of that elementelement: matter is composed of elements. Elements cannot be broken into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods. Each has unique properties- physical properties- detectable with our senses, or are measurable- chemical properties- how atoms interact (bond) with one another2. Be able to describe the structure of an atom: list the subatomic particles and their charges; give their locations in the atom.a. protons- found in the nucleus. Mass of 1 AMU and carry a positive chargeb. neutrons- found in the nucleus. Mass of 1 AMU and carry no chargec. electrons- orbit the nucleus in the electron cloud. Mass of 0 AMU and carry a negative charge3. Differentiate between atomic number and atomic mass. If given atomic number and/or atomic mass of an element, be able to determine the number of protons, neutrons and/or electrons.a. atomic number- number of protons in the nucleus. Written as a subscript to the left of the atomic symbolb. atomic mass- number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Written as a superscript to the left of the atomic symbol4. Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonding.a. attraction of opposite charges results in an ionic bondb. covalent bonds are formed by sharing of two or more valence shell electrons 5. Differentiate between cations and anions.a. cations- positive chargeb. anions- negative charge6. Differentiate between inorganic and organic molecules.a. inorganic- does not contain carbonb. organic- contains carbon7. Name the most important inorganic molecule and explain its importance.a. water is the most important due to its high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization and polar solvent properties8. Differentiate between acids, bases and salts. Be able to use the pH scale to recognize acids, bases and salts. a. salts- ionic compounds that dissociate into ions in water. Contain cations other than H+ and anions other than OH-b. acids- proton donorsc. bases- proton acceptors9. Describe the change in pH if hydrogen ions are added to a solution; describe the change in pH if hydrogen ions are removed from a solution.10. buffer: solutions of molecules that slow changes in pH by either combining with or releasing its H+ ions11. List and give general function(s) of the major organic molecules found in the human body. Name the building block of each (for lipid: name the building blocksof triglycerides).a. carbohydrates- molecules containing C H and O in a ratio of CnH2nOn-cellular fuel and structural moleculesb. lipids- triglycerides composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule- used for energy storage, insulation, and protectionc. proteins- joined by covalent bonds called peptide bonds and contain an aminegroup and acid group- provide structure, enzymes, antibodies, receptors, and carriersd. nucleic acids- DNA made up of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine(T)a) provides instructions for protein synthesis- RNA made up of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U)a)carry out orders for protein synthesis12. Name the high – energy molecule that cells utilize. Describe how energy is released from this molecule.a. terminal phosphates- perform cellular work using phosphate bond energy13. enzyme: globular proteins that act as biological catalysts. They lower the . activation energy, and increase the speed of a reaction a) named for the reaction they catalyze and usually end in -ase substrate: reactantsa) amino acids14. Differentiate between RNA and DNA. Name the monosaccharide found in RNA; name the monosaccharide found in DNA. List the nitrogenous bases found in RNA; in DNA.Chapter 31. cell: structural and functional unit of life2. Describe the structure of the plasma membranea. a lipid bilayer and proteins in a constantly changing fluid mosaic selectively permeable: only allowing certain substances to pass through2. simple diffusion: a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as an integral membrane protein facilitated diffusion: a form of facilitated transport involving the passive movement of molecules along their concentration gradient, guided by the presence of another molecule concentration gradient: the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles osmosis: the net diffusion if water across a selectively permeable membrane solute: the


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