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UNCW PSY 217 - Psychology Test 2 Study Guide

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Psy 217 – PittsStudy Guide – Learning Module 5 Operant Behavior: Reinforcement & ExtinctionOperant Behavior❖ What is operant behavior? B→ C➢ Behavior controlled by its consequences➢ Behavior that occurs, and continues to occur (or not) because it produces some outcome (an effect)➢ The consequences of the behavior determine the probability of the behavior. ❖ How is operant behavior different from respondent (reflexive) behavior?➢ Rather than being elicited by a stimulus like respondent, operant behavior initially is emitted, and then results in some sort of consequence. ➢ Operant behavior is controlled by its consequences, respondent behavior is not. ❖ What is the key characteristic of operant behavior (i.e., how is operant behavior controlled)? ➢ Operant behavior is controlled by its consequences, respondent behavior is not. ❖ Examples of operant behavior➢ Ask a question■ Get an answer➢ Tell a joke■ Others laugh (or not)➢ Study long and hard■ Improved test score➢ Smoke cigarettes ■ Nicotine effects (+perhaps social effects) (health effects later➢ Decide to go to party■ Have fun, but fail testE. L. Thorndike❖ puzzle-box study➢ studying cats in puzzle boxes. Latency to get out of the puzzle box. ❖ Law of Effect➢ Behaviors (actions) à “satisfaction”.❖ Why was Thorndike’s work important?➢ Important because It emphasizes the importance of consequences of behavior❖ Discrete-Trials procedures.➢ Type of procedure thorndike used. ❖ What were some limitations of Thorndike’s procedures?➢ Not precise enough. “Satisfaction” is not well defined.B. F. Skinner❖ Conditioning Chambers➢ Rat pressed lever and got food.➢ Pigeon put his nose in the right hole.❖ Free-operant methodology➢ -How is this method different than discrete-trials procedures?■ Free-operant is “arbitrary” behavior. ➢ -What are some of the advantages of Skinner’s free-operant methodology?Cumulative Records❖ Rate of behavior as a measure of learning/behavior change➢ A good measure because increased rate means that acquisition has occurred. ❖ Know how to read cumulative records➢ Slash marks mean other events. More responses the more jumps. The steeperthe slope the higher the rate. ➢ A change in the rate of behavior is indicated by a change in the slope. ➢ When a behavior that previously was effective is no longer effective. Operant Conditioning❖ Operant level ➢ With operant behavior, the presentation (or removal) of a stimulus is contingent upon behavior (i.e., it is a consequence of the behavior)❖ Acquisition➢❖ Contingency ➢❖ Effects of conditioning➢Reinforcement❖ -Definition (what reinforcement is and what it is not) 1. Operation - arrange contingency2. Effect - increase probability of response3. Process - the contingency “caused” the effect ❖ -Positive versus Negative Reinforcement➢ Positive - stimulus is presented/added ^ probability➢ Negative - stimulus is removed/ subtracted - probability decrease➢ Potential examples of each ❖ -Importance of ReinforcementExtinction❖ Definition❖ Effects of Extinction❖ Resistance to Extinction❖ Application of Extinction to children’s nighttime sleeping problems (e.g., Didden et al., 1999) MODULE 6 Types of Reinforcers❖ Primary (unconditioned)➢ Natural reinforcers, like sexual contact and food. ❖ Secondary (conditioned) ➢ Social interaction, like good grades❖ Generalized conditioned ➢ Money because many other reinforcers linked to it. ❖ Natural vs. Contrived➢ Natural - events that follow automatically from the behavior➢ Contrived- events that have been arranged by someone usually for the purpose of modifying behavior. Variables that Impact the Effectiveness of Reinforcement/Consequences❖ Immediacy- if it follows immediately it is stronger❖ Frequency - usually good but too much can be bad. And lead to satiation.❖ Contingency- refers to the degree of correlation between a behavior and its consequence❖ Size (magnitude) -the larger the stronger❖ Motivating/Establishing Operations - anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer. “Food is more reinforcing if an animal is hungry”❖ Premack Principle - high probability behavior reinforces low probability. Shaping of Operant Behavior❖ Differential Reinforcement - some responses are reinforced and others are not❖ Successive Approximations - the requirement becomes successively more stringent (precise)❖ Natural vs. Deliberate➢ Deliberate - usually systematic, often done by teachers, coaches, and therapists.➢ Natural - as a result of “naturally occurring” rather than deliberately arrangedcontingencies. Ex. when a parent unwittingly shapes whining.Applications of Reinforcement & Extinction❖ Substance Abuse Therapy➢ “Contingency Management” - involves establishing reinforcement contingencies to achieve a desired treatment outcome. It involves differential reinforcement of abstinence.❖ Treatment of infant sleep problems (review Didden et al., 1999)➢ Nighttime crying was completely ignored. If silent through the night then the lady would give a positive attention breakfast. If ill, parents were instructed to provide minimal care to avoid reinforcement. ❖ Applications of Deliberate shaping (read Reynolds et al., 2008) ➢ Using a reversal design, participants could earn money for continued abstinence during the treatment phases. MODULE 7Continuous vs Intermittent Reinforcement❖ What is continuous reinforcement? ➢ each instance of the behavior (i.e., each response) results in a reinforcer.❖ What is intermittent reinforcement?➢ typically is involved in the maintenance of behavior over time.➢ That is, behavior can be maintained almost indefinitely by reinforcing it only every now and then.Ratio vs Interval Schedules❖ What are ratio schedules?➢ Reinforcement is contingent upon the number of responses.➢ Often called “work” schedules. Reinforcement requires a certain amount of work.❖ -What are interval schedules?➢ Time-based schedules where the availability of reinforcement is based upon the passage of time. Individual must wait for a while until a response will produce a reinforcer. ❖ -How do ratio and interval schedules differ?➢ They differ on how often the reinforcer is available.Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedules❖ Definition of FR schedule➢ The number of responses required


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