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CSU SPCM 201 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Rhetoric in Western Thought Study Guide #1February 17, 2015 Examples of early non-Western rhetoriThe story of the “invention” of rhetori (i.e. what happened in Syrause?) Mayan Culture 2000 B.C.E.  Structure society One of the first groups to write Bantu 2000 B.C.E.  Oral story telling Magic words- Use words in the right way China  1500 B.C.E. Relationships between when to talk and when to listen Greece  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Came up with rhetoric system  Tyrants of Syracuse story  City is taken over by tyrants Overthrown  No records (can’t prove anything) Court was created to divvy up possessions after 50 years- “Naturally good speakers seemed to get more ‘stuff’ then deserved” - Court didn’t have any way to deal with it  Corax and Tisias  The importane of probability (eikos) in early rhetorial history Eikos (probability)  The reliance on reason in an uncertain situation, to determine the most likely outcome Why does eikos seem like the best form of decision making in the situation in Syracuse?  No witnesses The parable of the weak man and strong man The parable of the weak man and the strong man story  Two men (1 weak, 1 strong) get into a fight Someone stops them and brings them to court Both claim it was not their fault  Weak man says he would not win in a fight. “Look at me! Why would I start a fight” he saysRhetoric in Western Thought Study Guide #1February 17, 2015 Strong man says he knows he is strong and would not pick a fight knowing he would get trouble Both are probable situations; weak man’s argument is better and he wins  Who is Corax and what is his ontribution to rhetori?Corax, the crow We don’t know if he even existed  Not a lot of evidence  Reputation of naturally good speaking  Smart  See within situations - Help people make money Teaches people to speak well and charges money- His students did well which lead to the spread of the system and instruction of rhetoric  Who are the Sophists and what is their approah to rhetori? Group of people who were interested in studying different types of knowledge  Explore human development  The Sophists = “the wise” Traveling band of teachers  Make student successful; including rhetoric Teachers  Taught rhetoric—words  Got paid  Students end up being sons of people in high places—aristocrats Similar to Corax Relied on probability  Believed in absolute truth and was unknowledgeable or inaccessible  Also believed in contingent truth  Contingent truth  Let the people decide it’s true Ex: does God exist  Focused on practicalities of human affairs  Urged expertise in dissoi logoi  Means 2 arguments/2 sides Good at teaching this You would be successful if you could argue both sides- Pre-judge the other side- Prepared- Sophists get to pick side  Which ever side that will be more beneficial to them  Get paid (lawyer)Rhetoric in Western Thought Study Guide #1February 17, 2015 Corax began to push rhetoric outside of the court room What are Gorgias’s ontributions to rhetori? Gorgias Very good public speaker Improvisation—took on suggestions from the crowd Invited to festivals, ceremonies, etc. to speak Certain way he speaks that is mesmerizing Well regarded, becomes rich and famous Became what we call The Sophists The Encomium for Helen: what is it about?  Who is Helen? Princess that was abducted and taken to Troy Situation started Trojan war What are its major arguments?  What kind of speech do you think an encomium is? Speech to say person is of value, culture, important Speech is given in Helen’s honor by Gorgias Why should Helen be forgiven? She was taken by force- Rape Gorgias tried to convince everyone that words are just as powerful as actions Rhetoric can be good but can also be used for bad - Persuasion through words Did she love him? God said it was fate What does it teah us about rhetori? Use rhetoric as a form of self defense  Who is Aspasia’s and how does she at rhetorially in a world in whih women are not supposed to be rhetoriians?  Little is known  Some don’t think she existed  “The invisible woman” Trained in rhetoric—like Gorgias- Used to gain power  Difficult to be a woman in Athens Aspasia wasn’t from AthensRhetoric in Western Thought Study Guide #1February 17, 2015- Northern city state I Macedonia Gave her ability to be taught  Moved when she was an adult and won over men with her quick mind and sharp tongue Written in books as prostitutes because people did not believe women could be smart Became logographer (speech writer) for Athens most powerful man—Pericles  What distinguishes Isorates from other Sophists? A “later” Sophist Questioned what philosophy was  Taught students rhetoric for a fee Rebuilt family with this money after a war Did not travel, but opened the first school for rhetoric in the Athens  Different levels of rhetoric  Was not a show off - Very serious  What is kairos? The Allegory of the Cave and its lessonsAbsolute truth vs. ontingent truth(s)/ knowledge vs. beliefWhat is the Sorati Method? How does it work? Allegory: an expression by means of symbolic functional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence; an instance of such expression; a symbolic representation Prisoners, bound and can only see forward Directed at a wall with shadows  Shadows come from fire  Made behind them They see animals, artifacts  People behind them are talking and prisoners assume the shadows are talking  Allegory of the cave is largely about truth  According to Plato, people like the Sophists  People rely on others to know how the world works Philosophers believe there are two universes—one that is artificial and one isthe absolute truth  We may all begin our lives in the cave We can break free of what others are trying to present the world as and see it for what it really is What are your responsibilities once you’re out of the caveWhat do we learn from the Allegory of the cave? “From” and the Perfect worldRhetoric in Western Thought Study Guide #1February 17, 2015 The world is


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