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WSU BIOLOGY 315 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIO 315 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9IntroductionDefine morphology, histology, and embryology.- Morphology: a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structure features - Histology: a branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues- Embryology: a branch of biology concerned with the study of embryos and their developmentWhat are the relative sizes of the largest and smallest cells in the human body?- Human cells range from 5-100 μm in diameterKnow the anatomical position.- The person is standing straight, with eyes, toes, and palms forward, and with legs together. The girl below is standing in the anatomical position. Know directional terms such as: dorsal, ventral, cranial, and caudal.- Dorsal: towards the back (can be seen on the man above)- Ventral: towards the belly (can be seen on the man above)- Cranial: towards the head- Caudal: towards the tailExplain the three planes of section through the body: transverse,frontal, and sagittal. Transverse: any horizontal plane, cutting the body incross-sectionFrontal (coronal): any vertical plane that extends from right to left, divides the body into anteriorand posterior partsSagittal: any vertical plane that runs anterior to posterios, divides the body into left and rightWhat steps are used to preserve and prepare tissue for microscopy?- Preservation (fixation): because living matter tends to decay, it must be preserved shortly after deatho Phenol (harsh and does not preserve things at a cellular level), alcohol (leaves cells intact but the cell organelles are not well preserved)o The Best Preservatives: glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde, and ossium tetroxideo All fixatives introduce artifacts, only give an approximation of life and do not reveal the living tissue as it actually is - Sectioning: to make visible under microscope- Stained: Do this because the tissue is translucent and its components can’t be distinguishedo 2 classes of dyes Polycationic (basic) dyes- Have many positive charges and attracted to biological molecules that have negative charges (RNA and DNA) Polyanianic (acidic) dyes- Have many negative charges and attracted to organic molecules thathave positive charges (proteins in tissue) Hematoxylin is a common basic dye, purple, nucleus of cell stains purple Eosin is a common acidic dye, pink, cytoplasm stains pink How do the dyes hematoxylin and eosin work?- Hematoxylin is a common basic dye, purple, nucleus of cell stains purple- Eosin is a common acidic dye, pink, cytoplasm stains pink The CellWhat exactly is a cell?- a cell is the smallest living part in the body - contains many parts to keep itself aliveList the major organelles and the basic function of each one.i. 3 basic parts: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleusii. Plasma Membrane (plasmalemma): Interference between the inside and outside of cell and determines what gets in and what goes outiii. Cytoplasmic components1. Organelles:a. Ribosomes: synthesize all cell’s proteins, assemble amino acids into protein chainsb. Rough (or granular) endoplasmic reticulum (RER):Makes protein products that will be secreted from the cell. Makes all the external and internal unit of membranes of cells. Move readily between the RER and Cytosol.c. Smooth (Agranular) Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): Usually involved in lipid metabolism (making or breaking down fats). Gathers calcium ions from the cytosol and stores them.d. Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria): Generate the energy needed for the cell, by breaking down sugars in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and wateri. both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum store calciume. Lysosomes:Break down worn-out organelles, “cell’s cleanup crew”, Destroy material that has been ingested by the cell (such as bacteria), Phagocytosis: “cell digesting”f. Golgi apparatus: Concentrates and modifies secretory proteins that have beenmade in RER, Acts as a sorting and packing house for the products made in theRER, Lysosomes form by budding off of the Golgi apparatusg. Centrioles: form the mitotic spindles during cell division h. Cytoskeleton: act as muscular and skeletal system within the celli. Nucleus: the control center, controls protein synthesis and synthesis of other moleculesWhich of these organelles have unit membranes, and which do not?- Have unit membranes: RER, SER, mitochondrion, lysosomes, golgi apparatus, and ribosomes- Do not have unit membranes: centrioles, cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic inclusions, and the nucleusWhat are the functions of these elements of the cell skeleton: microtubules, actin, microfilaments, andintermediate filaments?- Microtubules: maintain cell shape, resist compression, highways along which organelles and molecules move, form the walls of centrioles and cilia, and make up mitotic spindles - Actin Microfilaments: work with myosin to produce contractile forces- Intermediate filaments: highly stable, resist tension within the cellsIn the nucleus, what are condensed and extended chromatins? - Condensed chromatin: coiled chromatin is tightly coiled - Extended chromatin: uncoiled parts of the chromosomesWhat is the nucleolus?- Dark rounded body within the nucleus- Functions to make most ribosomal RNA and is part of 10 different chromosomes.- Where the two subunits of ribosomes are manufactured Body Plan and ImagingWhat is segmentation?- Segmentation= a segmented outer-body- Structures that are repeated along the body lengthName some segmented structures in the human body.- Vertebrae, spinal nerves, ribs, and the muscles between our ribs.What is the notochord, and how does it relate to our backbone?- Notochord: a stiffening rod, ventral to the spinal cord in the back- Complete rod in the embryos and becomes part of the backbone in adults called the nucleuspulposus of the intervertebral discsConsider these medical imaging techniques: traditional X rays, CT, PET, ultrasound and MRI. How does each work to produce and image? What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each, in terms ofclarity of the image, danger to the patient and visualizing hard versus soft structures in the body?o X-rays Discovered in 1985 Very short wavelength electromagnetic waves , some absorbed when shot at a body,amount absorbed depends on density of the matter Bones absorb better than tissues b/c made of heavier elements (C and P) 4 different substances in human body (darkest to lightest) Air,


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