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HST 102 1nd Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture II. PreviouslyIII. Part 1: Urbanization IV. Part 2: Industrialization a. Taylorism b. Fordism V. Part 3: Immigration VI. Part 4: A Progressive Response Outline of Current Lecture VII. Seeds of the Progressive Era VIII. Power of ProgressivenessIX. Part 1: The Sixteenth Amendment a. Tax Seasonb. Stuck in Neutral c. The Amendment X. Part 2: The Seventeenth Amendment a. The Senateb. Power to the Peoplec. The AmendmentXI. Part 3: The Eighteenth Amendment a. Temperanceb. Temperance as a Woman’s Issuec. Activisim d. ProhibitionXII. Part 4: The Nineteenth Amendmenta. The Local Phaseb. The National Woman’s Partyc. Growing Momentum d. SuccessXIII. Part 5: Who and What made Progressa. Progressiveb. Who were they c. What does it mean These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Current LectureLecture 2/5/15The Progressive Era by Amendment- Seeds of a Progressive Era o Extensive and growing anxieties about major changes in American society o An overabundance of solutions o Leads to the Progressive Era 1890-1920o Eagerness to pursue and enact change cutes across all levels of society and takesmany different forms o Women as a growing force for reform o A more powerful federal government - The power of Progressiveness o Reformers in the Progressive Era capitalize on social and political anxieties o Become increasingly successful at enacting reforms locally and nationally o Believe in the power of an informed electorateo Progressivism is soon widespread and powerful enough to change theConstitution… several times. - Part 1. The Sixteenth Amendment o Tax season  Nearly all federal revenue came from taxes on goods and trade Income tax only existed temporarily during the civil war  But three factors increase a push for peacetime income taxes:- Some growth in the size of the federal government - Deficits during economic panics like 1893- Gilded age disparities in wealth and income o Stuck in neutral Income tax bills are regularly proposed in congress during the 1870s  Law taxing income over $4,000/ year at 2% passes in 1894 Struck down by the Supreme Court in 1895 (Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan andTrust) Taxation becomes a key Progressive cause and gains political supportsteadily after 1907 o The amendment  Conservatives in Congress urge a Constitutional amendment, assuming itwill never pass But it gains widespread popular support and is ratified in 1913  Fewer than 500,000 people pay income taxes each year from 1913 untilWorld War 1 During peacetime fewer than 3% of American’s paid income taxes untilthe 1940s. - Part 2: the Seventeenth Amendmento The senate  Senators are elected by state legislatures and not by popular vote  Senate was initially seen as a balance of power and not as arepresentative body  After the Civil War, the Senate is viewed as corrupt and unaccountable tothe people. o Power to the People  Progressives see the Senate as an obstacle to reform and urge directelection  Several factors push a political consensus on the issue:- State “preferential primaries”- Corruption and bribery scandals- Gridlock in state legislatures o The Amendment A constitutional amendment for direct election proposed in 1911 Gains massive popular support ratified in 1913 A major shift in federal accountability and popular political power- Part 3: the Eighteenth Amendment o Temperance Alcohol is a ubiquitous presence in American society  Resurgence in the 1870s as a mass movement  Remains strong but largely unsuccessful until the Progressive Era o Temperance as a Woman’s Issue Women play a crucial role in the success of the Temperance movement  Limitations on women’s rights make alcoholism an especially troublingissue  An appropriate sphere for women’s involvement in politics and publicsociety. o Activism  Framed as a key moral, social, and political cause  Led by the middle class By 1915, eighteen states have banned alcohol  Temperance grounds now seek a national solution  Movement grows as World War 1 takes shape o Prohibition  Prohibition amendment put forward in December 1917 Ratified just 13 months later Takes effect in 1920  A new experiment in altering private behavior and social mores by forceof law  From the state, however, enforcement is half hearted- Part 4: the Nineteenth Amendment o The local phase Efforts to get a woman suffrage amendment after the Civil War  Abandoned by 1890 in favor of local campaigns  Led by the National American Woman Suffrage Association  Succeed in getting some western states to embrace suffrage o The national woman’s party  In 1914 a new campaign for constitutional amendment  A more vocal and confrontational group takes a leading role: the NationalWoman’s Party  Begins picketing the White House  Deemed unladylike by the NAWSA Gain public attention after their arrest and violent treatment in prison o Growing momentum  13 states have enfranchised women by 1918  President Woodrow Wilson endorsed Constitutional amendment thatsame year The Senate delays passage until the Summer of 1919 o Success A 14 month campaign for ratification  In august 1920, Tennessee becomes the 36th state to ratify  State legislature is split evenly  Final vote comes from an anti-suffrage freshman legislator who changeshis vote at the last minute  Women can vote in time for the 1920 election - Part 5: who and What made “Progress”o Progressive Progressivism is a diverse set of ideas and agendas. There is no masterplan  An attitude rather than a movement  Some basic similarities - Reform rather than radical change- Gov’t should have a role in bringing out progress- Empowering an educated electorate - Private groups as the engine of social advancement - Empowering experts to improve efficiency and order o Who were the Progressives? A majority of Americans saw themselves as “Progressives” during this era Cuts across political affiliations, class lines, and racial lines.  Encompasses a wide array of ideologies o What does it mean? Progressivism is a widespread attitude Leads to dramatic social and political changes- Expanding gov’t role- Expanding the electoral vote


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