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HST 102 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture II. Seeds of the Progressive Era III. Power of ProgressivenessIV. Part 1: The Sixteenth Amendment a. Tax Seasonb. Stuck in Neutral c. The Amendment V. Part 2: The Seventeenth Amendment a. The Senateb. Power to the Peoplec. The AmendmentVI. Part 3: The Eighteenth Amendment a. Temperanceb. Temperance as a Woman’s Issuec. Activisim d. ProhibitionVII. Part 4: The Nineteenth Amendmenta. The Local Phaseb. The National Woman’s Partyc. Growing Momentum d. SuccessVIII. Part 5: Who and What made Progressa. Progressiveb. Who were they c. What does it meanOutline of Current Lecture IX. Progressive AmericaX. Part 1a. Progressive presidency b. Woodrow Wilsonc. Trouble Across the Seai.The allies and central powersd.The Great Hesitation e.He Kept us out of warf.Or not…These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i.The Zimmerman telegram XI.Part 2a.Raising an armyb.Doughboysi.American expeditionary forcec.In the trenchesXII.Part 3 a.Home front b.Man power and conservation i.War industries boardii.Lever act c.Selling the war i.Propaganda ii.The four minute men d.A great migratione.Repressioni.Espionage act and sedition actXIII.Part 4a.Armistice i.Treaty of Versaillesii.League of Nations b.A League of NationsXIV.Part 5a.A progressive war?b.A war on progressivism i.Red summer of 1919 XV.What does it all mean Current Lecture2/10/15A World at War - Progressive Americao A world of proposed solutions to society’s problemso Widespread attitude of political and social reform o Dramatically changing role of the federal gov’t o Giving power to the federal gov’t seemed like a good idea - Part 1o A Progressive Presidency  In 1912, Americans elect Woodrow Wilson, the first southerner sincebefore the civil war. Wilson campaigns on a Progressive platform called the “New Freedom”emphasized economic reform  Continues to consolidate executive power.  Typically was unlikely to take on this roleo Woodrow Wilson  Former university president, 2 years his term as Governor of New Jersey Strong credentials as a Progressive reformer- Not really well liked by the democratic party  Nominated after 46 ballots, wins with 42% of the popular vote- Didn’t really enter popularly  No foreign policy experience o Trouble Across the Sea A series of provocations in 1914, destabilized European politics.  Rapidly escalates to a full blow war  The Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia The Central Powers: Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire Combat defined by new technologies - Chief rivalry is Germany and GBo The Great Hesitation  Many Americans want to avoid the war, including many Progressives Wilson works to keep the country neutral. - The US as a mediator - Leader of the postwar world order  Economically, the US gives its support to the Allies Wilson begins a “Preparedness” program to ready for way by 1915 o “He Kept Us Out of War!” Wilson prefers neutrality and diplomacy  German submarines sink the Lusitania in May of 1915, killing 128Americans  Wilson ignores demands to go to war, instead pressures Germans tosuspend submarine warfare- The Germans agree  Wins a close election in 1916 in part using the unofficial slogan, he keptus out of war o Or not… But within months, new events plunge the nation into war:- Germany resumes submarine warfare- The “Zimmerman Telegram” – proposing a German/Mexicanalliance against the USo Saying if the US and Germany go to war, Mexico shouldback up Germany so they can get their land back - Wilson asks Congress to declare war in April 1917 - Part 2: Over Thereo Raising an Army  Within weeks, American involvement beings to shift the balance Naval escorts and campaigns begin to turn the tide  American ground troops begin heavy involvement in Spring of 1918 o Doughboys  American military had 200,000 in 1917 The American Expeditionary Force grows to 4.5 million  2 mill serve overseas, half in combat Underequipped, new logistical problems- Took nearly a year to get people overseas- Many soldiers trained in civilian clothes, without rifles, no officerhad ever commanded that large of a group  Insist upon fighting as a separate force, not part of the Allied military o In the Trenches  American troops are key to 4 major campaigns in 1918 A war of attrition and industrial strength  In 6 months of military action 60,000 Americans die in battle – 116,000deaths in total - Poor conditions in the trenches  A decisive impact in shortening the war - Part 3: Over Hereo Home Front Mobilization for war reshapes American society rapidly  Significant upheaval and transformation Massive new role for the federal gov’t o Manpower and Conservation  War effort is backed by volunteers and coercion  War Industries Board manages production - Manage how we move goods, encourage industries to be lesswasteful  Lever Act allows regulation of prices and production for key goods  Wilson Administration takes control over the railroads Massive expenditures: 2,000% increase in federal budget from 1916 to1918o Selling the War Propaganda plays a critical role Committee of Public Info handles selling the war effort- Raising money through liberty bonds, financing war debt A network of public speakers: the Four Minute Men - Local citizens who rallied the public and brought vivid stories tothe home front o A Great Migration  Growing industries and manpower needs spark mass populationmovements Black Americans leave the South en masse for the first time  400,000 AA migrants head North in 18 months  Racial tensions escalate in Northern and Midwestern cities o 100% Americanism  A broad campaign against “hyphenated Americanism” Anti-European hysteria - Cultural intimidation and repression - Vandalism and violence - American Protective League (unofficial police force with 250,000members)o Investigate neighbors, open mail, monitor telephones inorder to enforce conformity and monitor pro germans o Repression  Strong efforts to control dissent and disruption - Espionage Act: allows censorship of mail - Sedition Act: criminalizes anti-war speech o Eugene Debs is arrested and runs for president within


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