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OU BIOL 3333 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 3333 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 – 9Genetics Study Guide Exam 1What is a Gene? The basic physical and functional unit of heredity Made up of DNAAct as instructions to make molecules (proteins)*It must provide information to its carriers, with respect to biological structure and function*Organisms vary.. heritable variation is attributable to genetic change*Must be transmitted between generations and each individual must have a physical copy of this materialWhat is Tyrosinase? Gene in DNA transcribed into mRNAmRNA is then processed and released into cytoplasmmRNA is then translated into protein (on ribosomes)What kind of function does the protein perform in cell?Physiological functionWhat is pigmented in the cell?The physical characteristics - the phenotypeWhat is the Central Dogma?DNA -> RNA -> ProteinWhat are alleles?Different forms of a gene at a given genetic locusWhat is a locus?The specific site on a chromosome where the gene is locatedWhat is Allelic Variation due to?MUTATIONWhat kind of alleles are nonfunctional?mutations- the change in DNA leads to change in protein sequenceWhat is a naplosufficient phenotype?- where enough enzyme activity is present from a single functional alleleHow is a null allele phenotype normally inherited?- meiosis fertilizationWhat is an example of molecular genetics?- how the gene provides information to its carriers with respect to biological structure andfunctionWhat is an example of population genetics? - how organisms vary and the fact that heritable variation is attributable to genetic changeWhat is DNA the primary molecule for?- storing genetic informationWhat is the purpose of the Central Dogma?- it’s a main avenue for accessing information*it’s important to remember that there are other ways for information to be stored in biological systems - these mechanisms which are used to retrieve and use the information given are varied and complex!Who came up with heritable continuity and when?- the ancient greeks in 500 BCWho believed that the male is the main information carrier?- AnaxagorasWho believed in the concept of pan genesis?- HippocratesWho said “nothing from nothing ever yet was born”?- LucretiusWhat is meant by Spontaneous Generation?- life can arise spontaneously from decaying matterWho came up with the Spontaneous Generation idea?- F Redi, J Needham, L. Spalanzani, L. Pasteur What is Preformationism? - the concept that a tiny preformed organism was transmitted from generation to generationWhat did Spermatists believe?- that there are little humans (humunculi) present in spermWhat did ovists believe?- performed individuals present in eggs What did studies in embryogenesis discover?- that “adult” structures develop from more ‘primitive’ (undifferentiated) structuresWhat is the theory of epigenesis?- the idea the tissues and organs appear during development that are not originally present in the embryoWho postulated the theory of epigenesis?C. F. Wolff and K.E. Von BaerWhat are the 3 arguments of Natural selection?- Argument 1: Organisms vary- Argument 2: Variation is inherited- Argument 3: All organisms produce more offspring than can possibly survive and breedOn average, those that survive will be the ones that are better adapted to local environments Charles Darwin:- his views of inheritance are not that dramatically different than ancient greeksWhat did he say gemmules are?- derived from individual body parts- transported to sex organs- on fertilization they’re blended in the progeny- concept of continuous variationWhat did Mendel say about factors of inheritance?- they’re not blended and are inherited as discrete and particular entities- true breeding plants carried a double information set for the same traits- homozygous: two copies of the SAME factor- heterozygous: two DIFFERENT factorsWhat is a test cross or backcross?- the crossing of hybrid to homozygous recessive parent What does Mendels Unit Inheritance state?- factors are discrete and particular entities; they're NOT mixed or diluted during inheritance What does Mendels Principle of Segregation state?- the paired factors segregate (seperate) from each other in the formation of gametesWhat does Mendels Principle of Independent Assortment state?- parental factors segregate at random- if two sets of factors are followed in the same cross, each gene pair segregates independently of the other- (e.g you see two independent 3:1 ratios for each trait in a dihybrid cross)What is a genotype?- the actual gene complement of an individual, usually with regard to homozygosity or heterozygosity for a given geneWhat is a Phenotype?- physical expression of genotypeWhat is a locus?- specific site on a chromosome where a gene is locatedWho did Fertilization and Pronuclear Fusion?Hertwig in 1875What did Flemming’s studies on mitosis indicate?- that chromosomes had characteristics consistent with heritable information transfer What is a species characteristic?- chromosome shapes and numbersWhat is the sequence order of information transfer?- nucleus dissapears and chromsomes appear- chromosomes are paired- a copy of each one is partitioned into daughter cells- the nucleus reformsWhat did August Weismann study?- studdies in early insect embryogenesis showed a population of cells that arose early in development and gave rise to the gametesWhat do somatic or body cells consist of?- germline cellsWhat is the germ plasm theory?- cells set aside early for formation of germ line - special cells give rise to next generation- they differ from somatic cells in division properties- predicted reductional division for germ cellsWhat is the basis for independent assortment?- if genes are on separate chromosomes, 4 different gametes are equally likelyWhen will genes not show independent assortment?- suppose A/a B/b gene loci are close to one another on the same chromosome?- gene loci that are linked close together on the same chromosome will not show independent assortmentWhat does Probability (P) = :number of anticipated events total number of possibilitiesprobability of pulling an ace from a straight deck of cards: 4/52 or 1/13What is the product rule:- for indeendent events, the probability (P) of both events occurring is the product of theirindividual probabilitiesP(A and B) = P(A) * P(B)Probability of pulling an ace of spades from a straight deck:1/13 * 1/4 = 1/52The Sum Rule:- for mutually exclusive events, the probability (P) of either event occurring is


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