UW-Madison ENVIRST 260 - Wolf Management and Public Attitudes in Wisconsin (5 pages)

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Wolf Management and Public Attitudes in Wisconsin

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Wolf Management and Public Attitudes in Wisconsin


This lecture note covers the presentation given by the guest lecturer on wolves in Wisconsin. It discusses conservation of large carnivores in general, as well as history of wolves, wolf management and human perceptions and conflicts of wolves in Wisconsin of. Finally it gives an in depth summary of the lecturer's research and findings.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Envirst 260 - Introductory Ecology
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ENVIR ST 260 1st Edition Lecture 24 Outline of Last Lecture I Housekeeping and News II Ecological Impacts of Mining Outline of Current Lecture I Conservation of Large Carnivores II History of wolves and management in Wisconsin III Human wolf conflict and perceptions IV Does a public harvest increase tolerance of wolves Current Lecture Conservation of Large Carnivores Ecological importance trophic regulation habitat restoration wolves They have top down effects in trophic regulation A whole scale of effects can occur when a large carnivore is removed They re essential for healthy functioning ecosystems Globally threatened by human caused mortality and habitat loss Can be incidental accidents or intentional poaching Conflicts in a human dominated landscape Conservation Reduce conflict Maintain sustainable population Improve attitudes increase tolerance Human tolerance and coexistence are fundamental to large carnivore conservation Human Carnivore Conflict Resolution Carnivore Management Mitigation Wildlife Value Carnivore Damage Attitude towards Large Carnivores Behavior towards Large Carnivores These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute History of Wolves and Management in Wisconsin Bounties and Protection 1839 1957 Euro American culture predators are varmints nature for human benefit maximum efficiency and sustained yield of resources 1960 wolves considered extirpated in WI 1960 early 1970 s no evidence of functioning packs 1967 gray wolves in Great Lakes region listed as endangered first endangered species listUSFWS 1975 WDNR State listing of gray wolves endangered 1975 Recolonization 5 packs detected 1979 1978 all gray wolves in contiguous USA listed as endangered except in MN threatened Recovery in Wisconsin Factors that allowed wolves to recolonize are restoration of habitat uptake and abundance of prey species and federal protection Wolf Legislation 1979 statewide monitoring 1989 Recovery plans begin state goal of 350 wolves 2003 to 2012 federally relisted and delisted as endangered species 6 times 2012 lethal management allowed again wolves designated as a game species 2012 2013 First wolf harvest season in Wisconsin Imposed by legislature overrode scientific management Human Wolf Conflict and Perceptions Management and conflict in WI Mosaic landscape in Wisconsin Landscape is fragmented by human use roads farms residential areas etc Wolves maintain broad habitat tolerances Human encounters are inevitable bold wolves Depredations Livestock cattle sheep farm deer etc Bear hunting dogs during training Pets Confirmed or Probable Depredations Small numbers Broadly speaking there is a negligible effect in the number of these depredations but on a small scale this is a hit economically and emotionally on a family Wolf range in Wisconsin Primarily present in northern Wisconsin WDNR Reponses to Conflicts and Depredations Non lethal control Fencing fladry guard animals motion lights responsible husbandry Compensation program ER Fund license plates tax forms harvest revenue Lethal control permits non permitted response Act 169 Wolf Harvest Wolf Hunting and trapping Season 3rd Season ended last Friday 154 killed quota 150 Mid October to Late February Has ended early every season Allowed methods Firearm bow and arrow or crossbow Use of dogs to track or trail from Dec 1 last day Predator calls electronic calls Bait Trap Harvest Goals Reduce population to 350 state goal Reduce conflicts and depredations Increase tolerance and improve attitudes for wolves in the state Greater sense of control among those that are intolerant Does a public harvest increase tolerance of wolves Research Question Did attitudes toward wolves and wolf policy change among residents in wolf range since 2009 and since the inaugural 2012 wolf harvest Did tolerance for wolves increase Background Making wolves a game species even in a limited number might make wolves part of the utilitarian culture of wildlife and provide rural residents with a greater sense of control Efforts should be put into making wolves valuable to hunters Heberlein and Ericsson 2003 393 Hunter and non hunter support for a wolf harvest but with little inclination on behalf of hunters to conserve wolves Treves and Martin 2011 Hunter Conserve Hypothesis Treves 2009 Hunting for Large Carnivore Conservation Designation of game species may increase hunter stewardship tolerance Maintain stable carnivore population Relies on sound monitoring Cannot control for unpredictable variables that may affect population Reduce conflict May create human avoidance Build public support for conservation Opposed by non hunters Illegal killings should decrease 2013 Survey Sample 2004 Non wolf Range Respondents 2009 Wolf Range Respondents includes 2001 2004 Wolf Range panels Sample Size 1311 surveyed 772 responses Non wolf range 234 responses Wolf range 538 responses Overall response rate 63 81 male and 19 female 70 hunters 499 males 36 females Wolf Range in State Northern and central forests Questionnaire Design Largely based on previous surveys Analysis Longitudinal Design Tolerance Construct 9 Item scaled Variable Positive and negative Likert scaled statements assessing attitudes beliefs emotions and behaviors regarding wolves and wolf policy in Wisconsin Data Analysis Tolerance Construct Wolves keep deer herds healthy be killing he sick and weak animals We should let nature determine the number of wolves in Wisconsin I would oppose all hunting of wolves Seeing a wolf in the wild would be one of the greatest outdoor experiences of my life I think wolves are essential to maintaining the balance of nature Killing wolves is the only way to stop them from threatening farm animals and pets I think Wisconsin s growing wolf population threatens deer hunting opportunities I want to be able to hunt wolves without restrictions in Wisconsin I would be afraid if wolves lived near my home Calculating Tolerance Lower value indicated more agreement Higher value indicated more disagreement Tolerance Sum of Responses to Negative Qs Sum of Responses to Positive Qs Calculating Change Change in Individual Tolerance Tolerance 2013 Tolerance 2009 Positive values of change indicated higher tolerance over time Negative values indicated lower tolerance over time Results Wolf Range 35 net shift towards agreement with the statement Killing wolves is the only way to stop them from

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