NOVA ITE 115 - Lecture Notes (34 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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Pages:
34
School:
Northern Virginia Community College
Course:
Ite 115 - Intro. to Computer Applic. & Concepts
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XP Tutorial 9 ITE 115 Working with XHTML Creating a Well Formed Valid Document Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 1 Objectives XP Introducing XHTML Creating a Well Formed Document Creating a Valid Document Creating an XHTML Document Testing an XHTML Document Using Style Sheets and XHTML Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 2 XP Introducing XHTML SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language can be used with almost any type of document stored in almost any format Introduced in the 1980s Metalanguage used to created other languages HTML standards get confusing among browsers can be applied inconsistently Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 3 Introducing XHTML XP XML Extensible Markup Language used to design markup languages XML documents must be evaluated with an XML parser An XML document with correct syntax is a wellformed document A well formed document with correct content and structure is a valid document DTD specifies correct content and structure Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 4 Introducing XHTML XP XHTML is a reformulation of HTML written in XML Versions of XHTML Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 5 DTDs associated with XHTMLXP 1 0 transitional supports many of the presentational features of HTML including the deprecated elements and attributes Best used for older documents that contain deprecated features Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 6 DTDs associated with XHTMLXP 1 0 frameset used for documents containing frames and also supports deprecated elements and attributes Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 7 DTDs associated with XHTMLXP 1 0 strict does not allow any presentational features or deprecated HTML elements and attributes Does not support frames or inline frames It is best used for documents that need to strictly conform to the latest standards Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 8 XP Creating a Well Formed Document Rules for well formed XHTML documents Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 9 XP Creating a Well Formed Document XHTML documents must also include a single root element that contains all other elements For XHTML that root element is the html element Attribute minimization is when some attributes lack attribute values XHTML doesn t allow attribute minimization Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 10 Attribute minimization in HTMLXP and XHTML Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 11 Creating a Valid Document XP The DTD used depends on the content of the document and the needs of your users To support old browsers use the transitional DTD To support old browsers in a framed Web site use the frameset DTD To support more current browsers and want to weed out any use of deprecated features use the strict DTD Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 12 Creating a Valid Document XP Elements not allowed under the strict DTD Tutorial 9 applet basefont center dir font iframe isindex menu s strike u New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 13 Creating a Valid Document XP Some attributes are restricted while others are required in XHTML Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 14 XP Attributes prohibited in the strict DTD Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 15 Required XHTML attributes Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive XP 16 XP Creating an XHTML Document The first line of an XTHML document should contain a declaration indicating that the document adheres to the rules and syntax of XML XML and thus XHTML documents are based on a character set A character set is a set of abstract symbols matched to code numbers Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 17 Character Sets XP Universal Character Set UCS Unicode Character encoding is the process in which bytes are translated back into characters when a document is sent across the Internet Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 18 Adding an xml Declaration XP To declare that a document is written in XML enter the following as the first line of the file xml version value encoding type standalone type Where the version attribute indicates the XML version of the document the encoding attribute specifies the character encoding and the standalone attribute indicates whether the document contains references to an external DTD Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 19 Adding an xml Declaration XP For XHTML documents use the declaration xml version 1 0 encoding UTF 8 standalone no Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 20 The XML Declaration XP You can also add the DOCTYPE declaration which tells XML parsers what DTD is associated with the document DOCTYPE root type id url Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 21 XP The xml Namespace A namespace is a unique identifier for elements and attributes originating from a particular document type like XHTML or MathML Two types of namespaces default applied to a root element and any element within it root xmlns namespace Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 22 XP The xml Namespace local applies to only select elements Each element in the local namespace is marked by a prefix attached to the element name xmlns prefix namespace Identify any element belonging to that namespace by modifying the element name in the tag prefix element Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 23 XP Setting the XHTML Namespace To set XHTML as the default namespace for a document add the xmlns attribute to the html element with the following value html xmlns http www w3 org 1999 xhtml Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 24 Testing an XHTML Document XP To test your document you need to send the file to an XML parser or an XHTML validator Sometimes the same mistake results in several errors are noted in the report fixing one mistake can solve several errors Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 25 XP Fixing the errors in the paragraph elements Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 26 XP Report showing a successful validation under XHTML 1 0 transitional Tutorial 9 New Perspectives on HTML and XHTML Comprehensive 27 Testing an XHTML Document XP To test


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