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Genus & Species:Cattle (Bovine)
Bos Taurus Indicus Bison
Genus & Species: Sheep (Ovine)
Ovis Aries
Genus & Species: Goat (Caprine)
Capra Hirius
Genus & Species: Pig
Sus Scrofa Domesticus
Genus & Species: Horse (Equine)
Equus Caballus
Genus & Species: Chicken
Gallus Domesticus
Intact Cattle
Young: Bull Calf Mature: Bull
Castrated Cattle
Young: Steer Mature: Stag
Intact Swine
Young: Boar Pig Mature: Boar
Castrated Swine
Young: Barrow Mature: Stag
Intact Sheep
Young: Ram Lamb Mature: Ram/Buck
Castrated Sheep
Young: Wether Mature: Stag
Intact Horse
Young: Colt Mature: Stallion/Stud
Castrated Horse
Young: Gelding
Intact Goat
Castrated Goat
Young: Weather
Intact Chicken
Young: Coctorel Mature: Rooster/Cock
Castrated Chicken
Young: Capon
Female Cattle
Young: Heffer Mature: Cow (2 years old)
Female Swine
Young: Gilt Mature: Sow (1 year old)
Female Sheep
Young: Ewe Lamb Mature: Lamb (1 year old)
Female Horse
Young: Filly Mature: Mare (3-4 years old)
Female Goat
Female Chicken
Young: Pullet Mature: Hen (18 meeks old)
Animal products are excellent source of ________
B-vitamins (and only natural source of B12)
Composition of Meats
70% Water 20% Protein~8% Fat1% Ash/Minerals1% Carb1% Vitamins
_________ are attached to bone
Skeletal Muscles
_________ are present in the stomach and repro tract along with circulatory system
Smooth Muscles
_______ are part of the heart
________ are water soluble and associated with energy pathways
Sarcoplasmic Proteins
______ give meat a purple color
Red; Oxygen in binding site; Fe2+
Brown; nothing in binding site; Fe3+
Myofibrillar Proteins
Contracting of muscles and gives muscle structure Salt Soluble
_____ and ____ are the main contractile proteins
Myosin and Actin
____ and ____ are the main regulatory proteins
Troponin and Tropomyosim
______ are acid soluble connective tissues
Stromal Protiens
_____ is the major protein in the body
Collegen (white connective tissue)
_______ is yellow connective tissue seen in tendons.
T/F Pork is the least saturated meat
Animal meat is a poor source of vitamins _,_,_,_, & _
A, D, E, K, & C
List the factors that affect consumer acceptability
Tenderness JuicinessFlavor & AromaAppearancePrice
______, ______, & ______ impact tenderness
Contractile Proteins Connective TissueMarbling
Ways to Improve Tenderness
Electrical Stimulation AgingMarinatingTenderizersMechanical TenderizationProper Cooking
T/F Protein gives meat the species flavor
False- Fat gives meat species flavor Protein gives meat a meaty flavor
_________ is caused by a high pH
Dark, Firm, & Dry (DFD) Beef with pH > 6.0
_______ is caused by having a low pH
Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE) Pork with pH < 5.4
Carcass Value is determined by ______ & ______
Carcass Weight Carcass Category or Grade
Carcass Weight
Dressing Percentage = Hot Carcass Weight / Live Weight X 100
What is Dressing Percentage affected by?
Fill FinishMusclingHide, Head, Feet Weight
T/F Carcass Grade on BEEF is evaluated between 12th & 13th rib
Yield Grade for Beef
12th rib backfat, inch
Quality Grade for Beef
Maturity= (A-E) bone size, shape, and ossification Marbling Score= Intramuscular fat contentNot used in industry today
Yield Grade for Pork
Last rib backfat, inch Muscle Score (1-3)Not used in industry today
% Fat Free Lean (Pork)
10th rib backfat Hot Carcass WeightLoineye area or depth49%-51%Substitute for Yield Grade and Quality Grade
Yield Grade for Lamb
12th rib backfat, inch
Quality Grade for Lamb
(Prime, Choice,Good, Utility, Cull) MaturityFlank StreakingConformationFlank Firmness
Six Classes of Nutrients
Water CarbohydratesMineralsProteinFatsVitamins
_____ & _____ are micronutrients
Minerals Vitamins
T/F Water is the only macronutrient
False Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats are also macronutrients
T/F Feed costs are the largest production cost in the livestock industry
True 60%-75%
T/F Water Comprises 70%-75% of body weight
T/F Protein is the primary nutrient to provide energy
False Carbohydrates
Glucose FructoseGalactoseRibose/Deoxyribose
Sucrose(GLU+FRU) Lactose(GLU+GAL)Maltose(GLU+GLU)
______, ______, ______, ______, & ______ are polysaccharides
Starch Glycogen Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin
T/F Starch is bonded by beta 1-4 linkages
False Cellulose is bonded by beta 1-4 Starch is bonded by alpha 1-4 linkages
Starch is primarily in ______ while Cellulose is primarily found in ______
Concentrates (High energy, Low fiber) Roughages (Low energy, High fiber)
Amount of Energy from Carbohydrates
4.2 Kcal/g
Essential Fatty Acids
Linoleic Acid Linolenic AcidArchidonic Acid
Compound Lipids
Glycolipids LipoproteinsPhospholipids
Types of Sterols
Cholesterol Steroid HormonesVitamin Precursors
Essential Proteins
Methionine ArginineThreonineTryptophanHistidineIsclucineLeucineLysineValinePhenylalamine
T/F Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to form proteins
Semi-Essential Proteins
Glysine TyrosineCysteine
Functions of Proteins
Structure Regulatory and Protection Energy
Percent Crude Protein
% Nitrogen X 6.25
T/F Protein contains 16% nitrogen
Non-Nitrogen Protein
Used only by microorganisms in rumen
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E, K
T/F Ruminants need all fat soluble vitamins
False All except Vitamin K
Ca, P, Na, K, Cl, Mg, S
____ (in ___) ->Digestible Energy(in ____)->____(in the form of heat)->Net Energy->___
Gross Energy (in feces) In Urine & GasesMetabolizible EnergyProduction and Maintenance
Components of Feedstuffs
Moisture(water) Crude ProteinCrude FatCrude FiberNitrogen-free extractAsh
% Digestable Nutrient
(nutrient in feed-nutrient in feces)/ Nutrient in feed X 100
% Total Digestible Nutrient
% digestible protien + % digestible fat X (2.25)+ % digestible crude fiber+% digestible NFE
Metabolic Weight
(Body Weight) ^0.75
If a 500lb steer=15lb of feed then a 1000lb steer=? lb feed
(500)^0.75=105.7 (1000)^0.75=177.8105.7 / 177.8=1.71000 lb steer needs (15 X 1.7)=25.5
T/F All of the nutrients fed to livestock are used for maintenance requirements
False only half are used for maintenance requirements
Parts of Monogastric Digestive Tract
Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine
Parts of Rumenant Digestive Tract
Mouth Esophagus Rumen
T/F Ruminant animals have enzymes in their saliva
False, saliva is used for lubrication in ruminant animals enzymes are present in monogastric animals saliva
Water Absorption Sorting
Honeycomb that sorts heavy particles stay while lighter particles fall down to the rumen
Secretes HCl, pepsin, lysozyme
Belching Prevents bloating
The stomach secretes _____ and produces enzymes: ______&______
HCl PepsinRennin
Three Sections of Small Intestine
Duodenum JejunumIleum
T/F Pancreas secretes enzymes into the duodenum to breakdown macromolecules
_______ secretes bile produced in the liver
Gall Bladder
Pancreas secretes _____ & ______ to control blood glucose levels
Insulin Glucagon
Parts of Large Intestine
Cecum ColonRectum
T/F The cecum is the site of microbial digestion in cows
False; The cecum in HORSES is the site of microbial digestion
Volatile Fatty Acids
Acetate ProprionateButyrate
______ is the major site of water absorption (mono)
Volatile fatty acids are produced in the _____
T/F Horses have gall bladders
False; Horses do not have gall bladders
T/F The rumen turns unsaturated fat into saturated fats
Adenine Guanine
Thymine Cytosine
T/F Mitosis forms haploid cell from diploid cell
False; Meiosis forms haploid cells from diploid cells Mitosis forms diploid cells from haploid cell

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