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Animal Science
study of biology of livestock Animal Science is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of mankind".
Goal of Animal Science
to PROFITABLY satisfy needs of humans         -food, clothing, shelter, fuel, etc.
Cattle: Genus and species
BOVINE Bos taurus (origins in Europe)         indicus (origins in Asia/Africa)         bison (Buffalo)
Sheep: Genus and species
OVINE Ovis aries
Goat: Genus and species
CAPRINE Capra hirius
Swine: Genus and species
PORCINE Sus scrofa (domesticus)
Horse: Genus and species
EQUINE Equus caballus (horse)              asinus (donkey)
Chicken: Genus and species
Gallus domesticus
7 Uses of Animal Products
1. Food 2. Clothing 3. By-products 4. Pleasure 5. Power 6. Manure 7. Research Models
International Chicken Producers
1. China 2. U.S. 18 billion
International Cattle Producers
1. Brazil 3. U.S. 1.4 billion
International Sheep Producers
1. China U.S. not in top 5 1.1 billion
International Swine Producers
1. China 2. U.S. 938 million
International Dairy Producers
1. India 4. U.S. 220 million
International Horse Producers
1. U.S. 59 million
Vitamin B-12
-only found in meat -increases absorption of non-heme iron as well
6 Reasons For Inadequate Food Supplies in Developing Countries
1. lack of knowledge 2. population concentration 3. lack of wealth 4. governmental policies 5. environmental challenges 6. religious/ social taboo
National Beef Cow Production
1. Texas 19. Georgia 32.9 million
National Cattle-On-Feed Production
1. Texas Georgia not ranked 14.3 million
National Dairy Cow Production
1. California 27. Georgia 8.3 million
National Hog/Pig Production
1. Iowa 20. Georgia 68.1 million
National Sheep Production
1. Texas Georgia not rated 4.6 million
National Broiler Production
1. Georgia 9.12 billion
National Horse Production
1. Texas 9.2 million
Lean Meat Composition
Water: 70 Protein: 20 Fat: 8 Ash: 1 CHOs: less than 1 vitamins: less than 1
Three Types of Muscle
Skeletal: attached to skeleton Cardiac: heart muscle Smooth: GI and repro tract, circulatory system
Sarcoplasmic proteins
-water soluble -myoglobin, hemoglobin, cytochromes
-major meat pigment -exists in three forms in fresh meat: deoxymyglobin, oxymyoglobin, metmyoglobin -2 main parts heme ring, globin
2 factors determining meat color
-chemical state of Fe (+2 or +3) -compound bound to myoglobin free binding site
Fe2+, H2O bound, purple
Fe2+, O2 bound, bright red
Fe3+, no site, brown
myofibrillar proteins
salt soluble protein actin and myosin troponin and tropomyosin
stromal protein
connective tissue proteins acid soluble
major protein of the body 25-30% protein weight
mainly in tendons and ligaments
Meat Saturation Level
Pork < Beef < Lamb
daily meat serving
2-3 servings, 6-9 oz.
stiffening due to death of muscle
6 ways to improve tenderness
1. electrical simulation 2. aging (breakdown by muscle enzymes) 3. marinating (acid solution) 4. tenderizers (chemical) 5. mechanical tenderization (needle/blade) 6. proper cooking (low temp, long time)
-dark, firm, dry -results from high pH
-pale, soft, exudative -results from low pH
5 Factors affecting consumer acceptability
1. tenderness 2. juiciness 3. flavor/ aroma 4. appearance 5. price
Dressing Percentage
pork: 70 beef: 60 sheep: 50
4 Factors affecting dressing percentage
1. fill: content of GI tract 2. finish: fatness 3. muscling 4. hide, head, feat weight
Dressing percentage equation
hot carcass weight/ live weight X 100%
Beef Yield Grade
1-5  12th rib back-fat ribeye area kidney, pelvic, heart fat hot carcass weight
Beef Quality Grade
prime choice select standard marbling score maturity
Pork Quality Grade
acceptable vs. unacceptable (PSE) soft oily fat
Pork Yield Grade
last rib backfat muscle score 1-3
Lamb Yield Grade
1-5 12th rib backfat
Lamb Quality Grade
Prime Choice Good Utility Cull maturity flank streaking conformation flank firmness

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