Front Back
Public Opinion
written in 1922 where Lippman argues that we see the world not as it really is but as "pictures in our heads". Pictures of things not experienced personally is shaped by the mass media
Walter Lippman
His book Public Opinion argued that we see the world not as it really is but as "picutes in our heads". The "pictures of things we havent experienced personally, are shaped by the mass media.
Powerful effects theory
Theory that the media have immediate direct influence. Assumed individuals are passive and absorb whatever the media says with critical thought. Drew upon Walter Lippman's book Public Opinion
Two-step flow model
Media affects individuals through opinion leaders. People are motivated less by the mass media, opinion leaders receive info. from media and then pass it on to one or a group of receivers.
Agenda-setting model
Media tell people what to think about, NOT what to think.
Multistep flow model
Media affects individuals through complex interpersonal connections. The two-step flow model expanded.
Current thinking on violence studies
-exposure to violence does not make you violent -media believes the right situation and the right time and emotions involved can cause you to do something violent
Catalytic Theory
The theory that watching violence in the media can encourage real-life violence, but only if other influences are also present.
Agenda Setting Thoery-Mccombs and Shaw
Mass media has the ability to transfer the salience of items on their news agenda to the public agenda. We judge whats important based on what the media says is important. Media does not tell us what to think but what to think about
concept of the press as a skeptical and critical monitor of government for the people
Fourth estate
the press as the fourth estate of govt. Its job is to monitor the other branches (legislative, executive,judicial) as an external check on behalf of the people. Coined by Edmund Burke, based on medieval power structures
Carol Burnett
celebrity that sued the National Enquirer for libel after they described her being drunk in public, she won the case. First celebrity to win a libel case.`
Violence Assessment Monitoring Project
conducted contextual nonviolence studeies and found less serious media depositions than earlier thought
written defamation
spoken defamation
spoken defamation
third person effects
dismissing effects on yourself but assuming its true for others facebook doesn't affect me, but it might affect others (W. P. Davison)
Time, Place & Manner. government may control the time, place, and manner of expression as long as limits are content-neutral, exercise prior restraint. EX. A newspaper that criticizes the mayor cannot be restricted while one that supports the mayor isnt.
fighting words doctrine
the idea that censorship can be justified against inciting provocation to violence. (By Chaplinsky)
Incitement Standard
a four-part test to determine whether an advocacy speech is constitutionally protected 1. The statement advocates a lawless action 2. The statement aims at producing lawless action 3. Such lawless action must be imminent (he might change the work imminent in the test) 4. Such lawless …
Prior Restraint
prohibiting expression in advance, Minnesota legislature made a law that shut down obnoxious newspapers and the Supreme Court threw out the law saying it was against the first amendment
Minimalist effects
theory that media effects are mostly indirect (comes from secondary sources: Friends, acquantances). Includes the two step flow model, status conferral, agenda setting model, and narcotizing dysfunction (Paul Lazarsfeld)
cumulative effects
Elisabeth Boelle-Neumann cites tha multimedia ads hammer the same message and no one cam escape media or its messages driven home with redundancy. Media influence is gradual over time.
Related to agenda-settings, in which media coverage shapes how people see issues by selecting aspects of a percieved reality for emphasis in a mass media message.
using someone else's creative ideas, works or words as your own
Media obsessions
-Presidential Coverage -Conflict -Scandals -Horse races(treating things by numbers whose ahead) -Brevity(shorter articles, less information in articles)
media induced passivity
not living life because you are watching in through the media NARCOTIZATION DYSFUNCTION
Narcoticizing dysfunction
Media lull people into passivity. People are so overwhelmed by the volume new they tend to withdraw from involvement in public issues. Also when people have so much info on a topic they believe they're doing something about a problem when they are really only well informed.
Magic bullet theory
Also known as Hypodermic needle effect. Assumed that the media could "inject" or "shooting a gun with the magic bullet" info., ideas, and propaganda into public consciousness, exerting powerful effects on everyone that processes it.
activation of one thought leads to another. Give a little bit so they can think about other stuff.
Subliminal Memory
unknowingly borrowing someone else work
The Communication Decency Act 1996
Designed to keep internet porn away from children. Had 2 major problems: 1. Definition - hard to define indecency 2. Access - enforcement would inhibit free speech while internet not considered as invasive as broadcast where indecency is regulated
Created the golden mean as a basis for moral decision making. Avoid extremes and seek moderation,
Immanuel Kant
Advocated the categorical imperative.
categorical imperative
Using good process as the route to good choices
John Stuart Mill
advocated utilitarianism
declared that morally right decisions are those that result in "happiness for the greater good". Called his idea the principle of utility.
John Rawls
Advocated egalitarianism
egalitarian ethics
called. the viel of ignorance. Requires blindness to social position or other discrimination factors. That ethical decisions require all people have equal hearing and the same fair consideration.
John dewey
Pragmatism, progressive education, and liberalism
virtue of moral decisions had to be judged based on results, John Dewey
*conflict of duties
1. self 2. audience 3. employer 4.profession 5. society
Duty to self
self-preservation might lead a journalist to report a story from a safe distance
Duty to audience
Cause of death in an obituary or identities of rape victims. how much does the audience need to know?
Duty to employer
Reporting negative info on a parent cooperation
Duty to Profession
a conflict when one ad agency “blows the whistle” on other ad agencies
Duty to society
Putting everything else above your own self-interest
Media as Cathartic
Watching violence allows individuals to release pent up everyday frustration that might otherwise explode dangerously
Selective exposure
watching media that's going to reinforce your interests
Consistency Theory
choosing to watch/listen to things that agree with personal values, beliefs, and ideas
Trial balloon
a deliberate leak of a potential policy, usually from a diversionary source, to test public response; floating ideas
fairness doctrine
for every minute of information favoring one side equal time must be given to an opposing point of view
First Amendment
Freedom of Speech
Sunshine laws
open meeting laws require government meetings to be open to public
U.S. copyright law
Since 1970, protects authors and creators of intellectual property from having their work reproduced without permission, law protects for the lifetime of the author plus 70 years.
Using broad strokes to facilitate communication. EX. Cowboy w/ black hat=bad guy Newspaper headlines use stereotyping="Arab terrorist"
content analysis
analyzing content of communication
to refuse to answer questions, sometimes refusing even to meet with reporters. Putting up obstacles to where it's hard to get what you want
not concerned with actions, but consequences of actions • Pragmatic theory • Utilitarian theory • Social-responsibility theory
people act morally when they follow good rules • Theory of divine command - obey God's commands • Theory of divine right of kings - divinely anointed monarch • Theory of secular command - follow the leader • Libertarian theory - free thinking • Categorical Imperative Theory - univers…
Situational Ethics
make ethics decisions on the basis of situation at hand. Decide to print story even though it may cause damage to a person's reputation.
George Gallup
created public opinion polling
The percentage of poeple who own tvs & are watching tv
Percetage of people who have the TV on and watching a certain show. (this # is bigger than rating)
Sweeps Months
Nov, Feb, May & July. Months nielson collect tv ratings
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Clear and Present Danger. EX. Yelling fire at a theater.

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams


Join to view and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?