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9 Civil communication in groups Grouphate Negative attitude toward group work Overcome with training Growth mindset Two types of groups Short Term Task Oriented Long Term Relationship Oriented Temporary membership disband after goal met Example Class project Becoming norm in workplace Length of membership is indefinite Not task dependent attraction to members determines length of membership Example Hobby club Group productivity The larger the group the less effective 3 4 members most effective least effective is 7 Behaviors influencing group performance Performance monitoring observing the early work of other team members Expect what you inspect Backing up behavior members identify mistakes of others and provide training so not repeated Deal with problem behavior early Bruce Tuckman s Group Development Stages 1 Forming First contact roles uncertain very polite hesitant to say strong opinions getting acquainted want to make good impression 2 Storming Ideas challenged important issues argued vie for leadership and trust conflict occurs and must be managed to allow safe sharing of ideas 3 Norming Roles defined norms established begin to be more cohesive work as a team more comfortable 4 Performing focus on working harmoniously to meet goals and make decisions flex as needed When this stage is going well members are highly energized loyal and willing to meet challenges Four aspects of group climate Group climate the negative or positive feeling the team members have about the team and the accomplishment of the task Group Norms Responding to Contributions Roles Members Play Cohesiveness Group norms Norms may or may not be written down Norms may be assumed but not discussed timely arrivals meeting deadlines participating in discussions etc OR norms can be deliberately debated and stated team expectations Norms create expectations standards for members If norms haven t been discussed and an assumed one is broken the team should clarify and decide consequence If norms have been identified but are not enforced a new norm is established which is non compliance is okay When norms are clear and sanctions punishment for violations applied fairly members have less uncertainty and group climate is likely to benefit High status members and norms High status member could be leader member with valuable information member with rare talents etc Research shows high status member can get away with more norm violations without sanctions than lower status members Perhaps high status violation of norms perceived differently than lower status violation or lower status members are intimidated by high status members However when high status members are sanctioned they typically receive greater punishments for a norm violation than those of lower status Responding to contributions A lack of self restraint and failure to listen to and validate the opinions of others can hurt group climate Shift response as soon as one member states an opinion a second member states his own opinion without fully exploring the contribution of the first member This shuts down first speaker Competitive interrupting listener doesn t let member finish stating opinion but cuts the member off while speaking to give own opinion Ambushing waiting to pounce on another member s ideas as soon as member stops talking Roles members play Roles the behavior demonstrated by a member of a group Roles are created when people interact and can be formal or informal Formal roles assigned positions Examples Leader note taker Other group members have expectations for those in formal roles especially the leader Informal roles roles that are not assigned but that arise as people interact with one another There are three types of informal roles Informal roles What must a car have to provide transportation An engine Tires These are similar to the task roles informal roles needed to get the job done They might include giving and receiving information clarifying ideas etc What makes riding in a car an enjoyable experience Air conditioning A radio These features are desirable but not absolutely essential for transportation These are similar to maintenance roles informal roles that include supporting and encouraging others helping relieve tensions and monitoring feelings of others Informal roles What makes riding in a car an uncomfortable experience Unreliable speedometer Turn signals not working These are similar to disruptive roles informal roles that include demanding attention clowning around texting instead of participating always complaining socializing or studying instead of being on task etc Cohesiveness What keeps members together and committed to the group Typically such features as Stable membership small size honest communication with appropriate disclosure satisfied members While cohesiveness cannot be forced it can be encouraged by Valuing the contributions of others understanding unique school work family situations getting acquainted in an informal setting offering assistance accepting assistance etc Balancing fit and diversity You belong to a cohesive team that needs a new member Reinforcing Fit Extending Fit You choose to maximize the cohesiveness of the team You select a person who seems to fit the current group A problem occurs if person has superficial similarities ethnicity gender education etc but lacks vital requirements work ethic integrity etc You choose to emphasize diversity instead of cohesiveness You select a person who brings a different perspective to increase team creativity A problem occurs if person brings diversity but also causes conflict because members don t see things the same Types of power in groups Reward providing desired outcomes in return for compliance Coercion threatening punishment if compliance is not offered Legitimacy having the ability to compel others because of one s appointed position Expertise having more expert knowledge of field than others Reference having power due to the other s desire to identify with the power holder Information having power because of knowledge concerning a particular situation person may have unique access helpful network etc Power works because of a dependent relationship between the power holder and the target of the power move Past ideas about leadership Several theories of leadership have been embraced and abandoned over the years Some include Traits leaders are those who with certain personal attributes Leaders are born not made Styles leaders used authoritarian

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UH COMM 1301 - 9 Civil Communication in Groups

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