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The Greek Legacy and the Romans
-Alexander the Great -His father Phillip -Democracy is dead and his father has conquered Greece, now a monarchy
Phillip Bribes Aristotle
-Phillip bribes Aristotle to be the personal tutor for his son, Alexander -His mother claimed that Alexander is a son of Zeus, that she was one of his lovers-- gave Alexander confidence
Alexander's Rule
-When his father Phillip is assassinated, he becomes king -He is 22 years old when he goes to conquer the East --How Greek culture started to spread
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia at 20. Won against Persians and had entire western half of Asia Minor. Soon had Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Took title of the Great King of Persians. Caused the Hellenistic era. Inspired Romans. Greek language, art, architecture, and literature spread throughout the Mid…
Alexander Honors Achilles at Troy
-Tomb of Achilles at Troy, Alexander makes a sacrifice to Achilles -Has a companion
Alexander Sets Off
-Sets off to conquer the world -Takes all of Turkey -Founds Alexandria- Capital City -The last of the Greek rulers Cleopatra VII, of the Ptolemaic Dynasty died in 30 BCE
Post Alexander
-Has a son -Alexander dies, his empire splits into pieces -Ptolemy gets Alexandria -Longest lasting dynasty is Alexander's conquers -Rome starts out as nothing and over a few hundred years it grows very large military wise --They start to conquer Greek land and take on Greek culture;…
Reconstruction of Ancient Library
-Had biggest library in Alexandria
Lighthouse of Alexandria
-Greeks named it one of their world's "Seven Wonders" -Can be seen 30 miles away -Tomb of Alexander is there -Ptolemy said to hijack the body and bring it to the lighthouse where it was preserved --Egyptians found him and adored him for his accomplishments
Ptolemy Dynasty
-Lasted for nearly 300 years -Rome has most of the Mediterranean ---Except Egypt
Cleopatra VII
The last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt; a greek princess; she killed herself in 30 BC and the Roman Empire took over Egypt
Cleopatra VII Cont.
-Not content to be Rome's "puppet," wants power and independence -When father dies, will states that her and her brother would rule together ---She's not interested in that, she said that Julius Caesar would be the executive of her will
Cleo. Cont.
-War breaks out between her and her brother; Caesar goes to make the executive decision -Seduces him on first day, has a child
Cleopatra VII and Marc Anthony
-Marc Anthony succeeds Caesar -Gives Cleopatra more power and land, throws it on her lap -Romans declare war-- they lose-- Battle at the Sea on the coast of Greece -Cleo. and Marc kill themselves because they would rather be dead than be slaves
Augustus (Octavian)
-Rome's first emperor, ruled 27-14 BCE -He is crowned empowered, launches attack on Cleo and Anthony -Rules for great time "I found Rome a city of brick. I left it a city of marble" ; now they have wealth and power and can attract the best people --large portion still Greek speaking
Model of Rome in the 2nd AD
-Estimates suggest that 1.5 million people lived in ancient Rome at it's peak -1/3 of the world's population in the empire -They had huge and rich amenities (music halls, gyms, libraries, etc)
Roman Copies of Greek Sculpture
-They were collecting Greek literature and art, they started to make lots of Roman copies of Greek original art -Roman performance hall (Odein) Athens
Ovid
"Orpheus and Eurydice" (8 AD) Roman author, wrote Metamorphoses -Famous works: Heroides-15 stories about heroes and their absent lovers, Fasti- celebration/festivals and customs of Roman empire, Metamorphoses- 15 books on 215 myths, thorough source of myth,, Ars Amatoria - Three Books o…
Heroides
15 stories of Ovid, about heroines and their absent lovers.
Heroides: Hero Awaits Leander across the Hellespont
-Takes place in Troy; straight that separates Turkey -Girl- Hero lives on European side; she is a priestess of Aphrodite, every night her lover swims to the spot up on city walls guided by her torch- hard to get there -Storm blows up, Hero's torch goes out and Leander dies on the way be…
Flower Power
-Flora and Zephyrus -Roman "Floralia" festival held every spring to celebrate the rebirth of the land -Flora is the goddess of flowers -Zephyrus is the Greek god of the West wind, Romans have a festival every spring to celebrate the rebirth of the land; he falls in love with Flora and …
The Garden of Flora
-Crocus: Boy, Smilax: Girl -Crocus is in love with her and she flirts with him but never really commits -She rejects him and Crocus commits suicide- gods took pity on him and turned him into a beautiful flower -Smilax turned into a thorny branch
Pomona and Vertumnus
-Pomona: God of fruit trees -Vertumnus- old fertility god -Pomona has a secret garden which she doesn't let her lovers to see, Vertumnus is a shape shifter and turns himself into an old woman to see garden -Puts good word in for himself as a woman, she takes to heart and accepts him an…
Race of Atlanta and Milanion
Atlanta took into woods, left and raised by mother bear, returns and dad wants to marry off, (virgin follower) she says she has to be beaten in a footrace, Milanion prays and gets golden apples from Aphrodite from garden, drops, distracts Atlanta, he wins, make love on sacred ground, Zeus…
Anaxarete Discovers Iphis
-Iphis very much in love with Anaxrete -Begs and pleads for her love, she rejects him -Iphis commits suicide over the rejection -Anaxarete shows no emotion to Iphis's death, Aphrodite turns her to stone since she was so cold
Phinemon and Baucis
-Very religious older couple -Zeus and Hermes on Earth in disguise testing if man honors the guest-host relationship, taken in them -Gods reveal themselves and tell they will grant them a wish for honoring relationship -- wish to die together-- when die turned into oaks that are united …
Byblis Lovesick over Caunus
-Byblis falls in love with her brother --> Caunus -Dares not to speak of this, writes him a letter -Horrified when he reads it, runs away, Byblis follows pleading for his love -Exhausted and lovesick, she sinks into the ground, Aphrodite turns her into a spring -- Asian Minor: Byblis S…
Thisbe Listens to Pyramus
-Shakespeare based on Romeo and Juliet -Son and the daughter of feuding families, houses share wall speak through crack and agree to run away together, meet at Mulberry tree -Thisbe gets there first, lion also there and runs, Pyramus then arrives thinking Thisbe has been eating by the l…
Janus
-Double headed, gods of beginnings, coming and going, and thus doors, entrances, bridges, etc. His name given to the month of January -Beginning of the year -Old God of Italy -Temple in Rome Forum
Mars the Avenger
-Father of Romulus and Remus, word "martial" -Derives from his name -Famous temple in the Roman Forum -Sometimes accompanied by Bellona
The Capitol Triad
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva -Main temple in main Roman city -Roman Victor showing: Mars, Minerva, and Bellona
Jupiter
Supreme God, especially powerful in all matters -One important epithet: "Optimus Maximus" -Best, greatest -(Zeus)
Juno
(Hera) originally an independent goddess of woman, later wife of Jupiter -Mostly associated with marriage and childbirth -Also presided over the Roman Mint --> Money -Common epithet- "Juno Regina" -Queen
Minevera
(Athena) associated with mental skill, rather than war, patron of craftspeople, workers and school children -- Another goddess, Bellona, presided over the realm of war with Mars
Vesta
(Hestia) guardian of the eternal flame and the hearth -Famous round temple in Roman Forum- Pollarium, --- girls pledged 30 years of service to Vesta -Rome's Famed Vestal Virgins: wear white, guard sacred flame in temple, pledged 30 years of virginity-- vow broken punishment occurs -Ve…
Vulan
(Hephaestus) god of fire, said to live in the depths of a volcano -More often associated with fire's destructive powers
Saturn
-Agriculture god, one of the oldest temples in Rome -Saturnalia occurred in December: festival in Rome celebrating him, gift giving very common, Christmas -Symbol: wheat, grain
Ceres
(Demeter) goddess of agriculture -Word "cereal" derives from her name -Daughter is Proserpina, equivalent of Persephone -No mystery religions
Gods of the Woodlands
Sylvanus and Faunus (Pan) -Worshipped Sylcanus before cutting down trees in a forest -Faunus is half man with tail, pointy ears, beard; very mischievous, responsible for strange noises in forests
Venus
(Aphrodite) goddess of love, sex, fertility, and mother of Roman people -Also: bringer of victory and success protector of sewers and drains -Son is Cupid (Eros) Venus -> Aeneas -> Julus Romulus -> Roman Pople -> Julians
Neptune
(Poseidon) god of sea, but also fresh water bodies -Other water gods: Portunus- god of harbors, Tiberiunus: god of the Tiber
Mercury
(Hermes) in Roman culture much associated with merchants and commerce -Latin word merced means "merchandise" -Unlike Hermes, temples were dedicated to him Roman Mercury carries -> money bag--- symbol
Diana
(Artemis) goddess of the moon, the moon governed women -Simplified, less important than Artemis
Gods and Spirits of the Underworld
Gods and Spirits of the Underworld
Manes
An individual's own spirit after death
Parentalia
Your departed ancestors
Dis Pater/ Pluto
Equivalent of Hades
Prosperina
Equivalent of Persephone
Household and Personal Spirts
Lares and Genus/ Juno -Man: Genuis -Woman: Juno Not just for humans, used for animals Lares Shrine in Roman house, where one would find statues of the Lares, honors household energy/spirit
Hercules Victor (Herakles)
Because he traveled so much, he was invoked by travelers like Mercury -His power and strength were worshiped by athletes
Castor and Pollus aka Dioscuri
(Castor and Polydeuces) Important miliarty gods in Roman thought -Temple in the Roman Forum
Apollo
Mostly a god associated with prophecy, healing, and athletics; not nearly as popular as in Greece -Separate sun god called Sol --> Solar, appears on coins -A Sibyl with her books of prophecy: thought the Pythia was recognized as the most important, the Romans claimed 9 other prohestesse…
Priapus
-The garden, fertility, and household luck If house was blessed by Priapus, doing very well, means this house is blessed by wealth and fertility
An Egyptian Trinity
Isis, Sarapis, and Harpocrates Sarapis: Zeus like Painting of Isis from the temple of Isis, Pompeii
Cybele
Fertility goddess from Asia Minor -Shown as mistress of wild animals, has control over nature/earth --Shown riding lions or in a chariot being pulled by lions
Cybele: Attis
Cybele forced Attis to castrate himself because he was in love with another woman; dies from wound --Asks Zeus to resurrect him and Zeus does Attis becomes her conseur
Aneas escapes Troy with Anchises and Julus
-Story told by Vergil, like the Odyssey
The Roman Poet Vergill
Famous Works: Bucolics- pastoral poetry, Georgics - about farming, Aneied- 12 books about the hero Aeneas "Love conquers all" (Bucollics)
Aneied
Aeneas driven by a storm to Carthage, welcomed by Queen Dido, tells him about sack of Tryo and his wanderings, Dido falls in love with him -Jupiter urges Aeneas to leave Carthage and go to Italy, grief stricken Dido commits suicide-- throws herself into the fire, bestows curse
Aneied Cont.
Anchises dies -Aeneas reaches Italy, Sibyl gives him a tour, including the underworld where he is reminded of his destiny -- Sees father, led by Sibyl, sees Destiny Aeneas engages in a battle against local rulers, emerges triumphant, takes the city of Latium and married the princess La…
Back to Romulus and Remus
King Numitor descended from Aeneas, overthrown by his brother Amullis; Amullius makes Numitor's daughter Rhea Siliva become a Vestal, to ensure to heirs are born to Numitor
Romulus and Remus Cont.
Mares raped Rhea Silivia, Romulus and Remus are born -Amulus orders the babies thrown into the Tiber river --Romulus and Remus nursed by she-wolf, then found by the kindly Shepherd, and were raised by him Romulus kils Remus arguing of who leads the new city
The Festival of the Wold
The Lupercalia: Celebrates wolves in Roman culture, from the story of Romulus and Remus raised by the she-wolf -In February, two goats are sacrificed, strikes people with the stripped goat skins to ensure fertility
Apollo and Cleet
Cleet is in love with Apollo, Cleet is looking at the sun and he rejects her and turns her into a sun flower

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