Front Back
Olivary Nuclei
Relays info to the cerebellar cortex concerning somatic motor centers at higher levels. include Nucleus Gracilis and Nucleus Cuneatus Site of Decussation
What are the 3 major groups of neurons that reside in the medulla oblongata?
Autonomic nuclei - visceral activities Sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerves Olivary Nuclei
Region of Sensory and Motor info regulation and sending info where 80% of info is processed in higher areas.
Medulla Oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
Connects the brain with the Spinal Cord Relay stations and Reflex centers Olivary Nuclei Cardiovascular and respiratory (vasomotor) rhythmic centers Reticular formation begins in the medulla oblongata and extends into more superior portions of the brian stem. Remember the RAS
What is the function of the Pons
Coordinates heart rate and respiration. carry and/or relay sensory and motor information
The Pons contains:
Sensory and motor nuclei for four cranial nerves (V,VI,VII,VIII) Nuclei that help control Respiration Nuclei and tracts that link the cerebellum with the brian stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord ascending, descending, and transverse tracts. This is one of the only instances for transverse…
Cerebellum function
Integration of skeletal muscles. Adjusts postural muscles and tunes on-going movements
The Cerebellum is made up of
Cerebellar Hemispheres anterior and posterior lobes vermis flocculonodular lobe Superior, middle, and inferior cerbellar peduncles link cerebellum with brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord interconnects the two cerebellar hemispheres
the unusual structure of the cerebellum
spaghetti stuff are axonal tracts. All cells must contact each other and eventually lead to the Pons and Medulla. They are nothing but myelinated axons Govern skeletal muscles. Called "Arbor Vitae" or the "Tree of Life"
What happens when the Pons are injured?
It will effect the Heart and Respiration RT and ____
What is the role of the mesacephalon?
controls basic homeostatic functions
Mesencephalon is made up of
Tectum (roof) contains the corpora quadrigemina, AKA the 4 marbles superior and inferior colliculi - are in charge of the fine-tuned control of motor activity The processors of the fine-tuned activity red nucleus substantia nigra cerebral peduncles RAS headquarters (heightens/decrea…
Diencephalon made up of (3)
Epithalamus Hypothalamus Thalamus
Thalamus does what?
It is the final relay point for ascending sensory info. (between upper and lower regions of the brain) It coordinates the activities of the cerebral cortex and basal nuclei
They Hypothalamus does what? (8)
controls somatic motor activities at the subconscious level (everything we don't think about) controls autonomic function coordinates activities of the endocrine and nervous systems secretes hormones that lead to the release of 9 hormones from the Pituitary Gland. produces emotions an…
Cerebrum is associated with ____
highest though processing
Limbic System includes (5)
Amygdaloid Body Cingulated Gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus Hippocampus Fornix
Functions of the limbic system
emotions and behavioral drives
A tumor in limbic system resulting in violence would include what 3 parts of the LS?
Amygdaloid body Parahippocalmpal gyrus Hippocampus
What two parts of the limbic system are involved in memory?
Parahippocampal gyrus Hippocampus
The Cerebral Cortex's convolutions and lobe separation
Gyri and Sulci/Fissures Longitudinal fissures separates two cerebral hemispheres (when looking at the hemispheres you are looking at 83% of the brain cells that do processing) Central sulcus separates frontal and parietal lobes Temporal and Occipital lobes also bounded by sulci
What are the 5 lobes of the brain
frontal temporal parietal occipital insula - very deep to the brain
Each Lobe has 3 basic regions
Cerebral Cortex White Matter Basal Nuclei
Cerebral Cortex has __ neurons, __ layers and what 3 functions?
billions 6 moror, sensory and association
Basal Nuclei 3 primary structures
They all, but mostly the Putamen, control muscle tone and coordination, learned movement patterns. Caudale Globus Putamen
Learned patterns
Believe we learn things in patterns. More you learn it strengthens the route. You can increase speed of the patten the more you wok on learning a movement, the faster you can use it.
Primary Motor Areas (4) and location
Located in Precentral Gyrus in both sides of the brain Motor Axons Premotor Corte Broca's Area Frontal Eye Field
Primary Motor Area: Motor Axons
huge nerve cells and axons. Pyramal Cells make up cortica spinal tract, which is a direct pathway
Primary Motor Area: Premotor Cortex
Of the primary motor cortex this is the most important Involved in selection and sequencing Select patterns to use and will coordinate them. Controls learned, repetitious, or patterned motor skills and coordinates movements.
Primary Motor Area: Broca's Area
Only in the Left Forebrain For production of speech. enables you to talk. Fasia - inability to speak. Leads to a diagnosis of stroke in specific area of the brain. motor to the mouth and tongue -- hypoglossal.
Primary Motor Area: Frontal Eye Field
Has nothing to do with vision. Controls and regulates the eye movements. damage to these muscles can lead to fixed vision.
Primary Sensory Cortex
Involved in spacial discrimination - allows you to navigate spacial world Somatosensory Association Areas Visual Association Auditory Association Vestibular Olefactory Gustatory Visceral Wernickes
Primary Sensory Area: Somatosensory Association Cortex
-Located posterior to primary somatosensory cortex -Integrates sensory information (temp. and pressure) -Forms comprehensive understanding of stimulus -Determines size, texture, and relationship of parts using stored memory ex: knowing coin w/o looking
Primary Sensory Area: Visual Association Area
-Surrounds the primary visual cortex -Retinal Input -- Interprets visual stimuli (color, form, and movement) from past visual experience DEFECT- stroke would lead to someone seeing a table but not knowing the object by name or function
Primary Sensory Area: auditory association area
posterior to the primary auditory cortex permits evaluation of different sounds processes auditory stimuli serially and in parallel posterolateral = where anterolateral = what in the center of the wernickes area (recognizing and understanding speech)
Primary Sensory Area: Vestibular cortex
Processes information from the vestibular apparatus - responsible for conscious awareness of sense of balance (position of the head in space) - located in the posterior part of the insula lobe, deep to the lateral sulcus
Primary Sensory Area: Olfactory
In medial temporal lobe perception of smell.
Primary Sensory Area: Gustatory
Taste and taste discrimination
Primary Sensory Area: Visceral
Conscious perception of visceral sensations ie: upset stomach, needing to urinate, feeling of fullness
Primary Sensory Area: Wernickes
On left Temporal Lobe Allows for understanding of what is being spoken to you. In the event of a severe stoke -- cannot understand speech -- can say words, but not logical sentences.
the spinal cord is protected by? (4)
vertebral column the meninges cerebrospinal fluid denticulate ligaments
what are the three meninges?
dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater
where does the spinal cord begin and end?
as an extension of the medulla oblongata and ends at the second lumbar.
what is the inferior portion of the spinal cord and what develops from it?
the conus medullaris; the filum terminale and cauda equina
what kind of nerves to dorsal roots contain and what kind do ventral roots contain?
dorsal: sensory or afferent ventral: motor, or efferent
what divides the spinal cord into left and right sides?
the anterior median fissure and the posterior median sulcus
the grey matter is divided into ___ while the white matter into ___.
horns, columns
how many spinal nerves are there and how are they divided?
31 pairs: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal
Spinal nerves are ___ nerves
mixed (have both motor and sensory axons)
What are the three connective tissue coverings for the spinal nerves?
endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium.
the cervical plexus supplies:
the skin and muscles of the head, neck, and upper part of the shoulders. Connect with the cranial nerves to innervate the diaphragm.
the brachial plexus supplies:
upper limbs and several neck and shoulder muscles.
Nerves of the lumbar plexus supply
the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, part of the lower limbs.
Nerves of the sacral plexus supply
the buttocks, perineum, and part of the lower limbs.
Nerves of the coccygeal plexus supply
skin of the coccygeal region.
Intercostal (thoracic) nerves do what?
Anterior rami. T2-T12 supply intercostal spaces.
what are dermatomes?
region of the skin innervated by sensory neurons within the spinal nerves and the V nerve. Act as landmarks when trying to asses spinal nerve damage.
Sensory input in the white matter travels along what two routes?
posterior columns and the spinothalmic tract.
Motor output travels along what two main routes in the white matter?
direct and indirect pathways.
Where does spinal reflex information get integrated?
the grey matter of the spinal cord.
What kind of reflexes are there?
spinal/cranial somatic/autonomic
what are the component of a reflex arc?
sensory receptor, sensory neuron integrating center moror neuron effector
What are the somatic spinal reflexes? (4) what kind of innervation do they have?
stretch (ipsilateral - muscle tone) tendon flexor (withdrawal) crossed extensor + these are exhibit reciprocal innervation
what is the difference between monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex arcs?
mono: 1 sensory and 1 motor (patellar) poly: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons (crossed extensor and tendon, and flexor (withdrawal))
the tendon reflex is ____ and achieves what?
ipsilateral prevents damage to muscles and tendons when muscle force becomes too extreme. dropping a heavy weight.
The flexor reflex is ____ and does what?
ipsilateral moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
crossed extensor reflex is a ____ reflex does what?
polysynaptic contra laterally moves the body to a limb that can support the full weight of the body when there is a painful stimulus.
what are the 4 main parts of the brain?
cerebellum brain stem diencephalon cerebrum
brainstem is continuous with, and consists of the (3)
spinal cord: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
the cerebellum is ___ to the brain stem.
the diencephalon is ____ to the brain stem and consists of (3)
superior thalamus hypothalamus epithalamus
the cerebrum is ___
the largest part of the brain
The cranial meninges structure. outer to inner:
dura mater (2 layers: periosteal is external and the meningeal layer which is internal) arachnoid mater pia mater
the falx ceribri, falx cerebelli, and the tentorium cerebelli:
separates: the two hemispheres of the cerebrum the two hemispheres of the cerebellum separates the cerebrum from the cerebelli
How does blood flow to the brain? and out of the brain?
through the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. the dural venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular veins that to to the heart.
the brain uses __ % of the body's oxygen and glucose.
20. the glucose must be brought into the brain as well. it is not stored in the brian.
Made up of endothelial cells of brain blood capillaries and basement membrane that surrounds the capillaries. astrocytes glucose crosses by active transport.
Incomplete BBB areas
Hypothalamus pituitary pineal gland choroid plexus
CFS where is it and what are the functions?
circulates in the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid and pia) Lateral ventricle (one on each side), third and fourth ventricles. Mechanical protection: shock absorber. Homeostatic Function: pH , transports polypeptide hormones from the hypothalamic neurons circulation: nutrien…
what two cranial nerves are distributed to the tongue?
glossopharyngeal and the trigeminal
White matter v. grey matter
w: myelinated and umnyelinated axons. Information Transfer/Transport. g: cell bodies, unmyelinated axons and neuroglia. Integration and command initiation.
Horns of Spinal Cord
Posterior Grey Horn: Somatic and Visceral Sensory Nuclei Anterior Grey Horn: Somatic Motor Neurons Lateral Grey Horn: Visceral Motor Neurons Grey Commissures: Axons that cross from one side to the other.
White matter is divided ___
into 6 columns, called Funiculi, into tracts Ascending tracts : sensory info from the spinal cord to the brain Descending tracts : motor info from the brain to the spinal cord.
Spinal nerves have what 3 layers?
epineurium (outer) perineurium (middle) endoneurium (inner)
spinal nerves had branches call ___. (4)
Rami White ramus -- myelinated axons gray ramus -- unmyelinated axons -- innervate glands and smooth muscles dorsal ramus -- sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back. ventral ramus -- supplying ventrolateral body surface, body wall and limbs.
White Ramus
mylenated Axons
Grey Ramus
Unmylenated axons that innervate glands and smooth muscles
Dorsal Ramus
sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back
Look at the diagram on slide 28
each nerve innervates what?
a dermatome
Ventral Ramus
Supply ventrolateral body surface, body wall, and limbs
the spinal nerves that extend, branch and connect eventually become _____
the peripheral nerves
what is a dermatome?
a specific area of the skin supplied by a single spinal nerve.
dermatomes and symptoms: aching in a dermatome pain in a dermatome
aching: oxygen debt pain: referral pattern from another source.
somatic reflexes control
skeletal muscles
Monosynaptic v. polysynaptic reflexes
mono - sensory to motor poly - sensory to interneuron to motor (longer delay in stimulus and response)
In the primary motor cortex that does the precentral gyrus direct?
voluntary movements
The primary sensory cortex of the postcentral gyrus receives somatic sensory info such as?
touch pressure pain taste temperature
Association areas control what ability?
to understand sensory info and coordinate a response somatic sensory association area visual association area somatic motor association area
Prefrontal cortex coordinates what and performs what?
coordinates info from secondary and special association areas performs abstract intellectual functions.
Hemispheric differences of the cortex
left: speech and language skills right: spatial relationships and analysis.
Alpha waves
healthy resting adult
beta waves
concentrating adult
theta waves
normal children
delta waves
normal during sleep
how many pairs of cranial nerves are there? where do they attach?
12 ventrolateral surface of the brainstem
what nerve relays taste sensations?
facial nerves (VII)
Descending Pathways: Direct v. Indirect
Direct : convey nerve impulses that originate in the cerebral cortex and are destined to cause voluntary movements of the skeletal muscle. indirect: nerve impulses from the brain stem to cause automatic movements and help coordinate body movements with visual stimuli.
4 levels of consciousness
alertness drowsiness/lethargic stupor coma
feinting experience. clinically unconscious
GI is most active during ____ ?
Levels of sleep
Awake/Alert REM - skeletal muscles inhibited except for eye and diaphragm. Dreaming occurs here non REM -- relaxation (alpha) irregulatory (sleep spindles) sleep deepens. (theta and delta. drop in vitals) eeg - all delta waves. stage for night terrors.
Orexin is a hormone associated with ____ ?
ANS 2 divisions
sympathetic and parasympathetic
NT release in the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
pre-Ach and post-NE/E pre and post-Ach
receiving input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches.
Hypothalamus regulates what system?
the Autonomic system is highly regulated by what?
What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems pre and post ganglionic lengths
sympathetic pre = short, post = long parasympathetic pre = long, post = short
What is the order in a somatic reflex arc v an ANS reflex arc?
Receptor/Sensory Neruon/Integrating Center/Motor Neuron/Effector Receptor/Sensory Neuron/Interneuron/Motor Neuron/Effector
Most B's enhance _______ activity
Nitric Oxide
can work like an NT in the ANS. A bi-product of cellular damage.
Parasympathetic post ganglions terminate where?
In the organ or in the wall of the organ
Post gang. signals tend to have what kind of effect? why
immediate b/c they are localized releases that don't have to travel through the entire blood system for delivery.
normal state for pupil is ____?
Sympathetic is to ________ as Parasympathetic is to ________.
Catabolic. Anabolic.
what are the two kinds of Cholinergic receptors?
Nicotinic and Muscarinic
Where are NIcotinic receptors primarily located?
Plasma membrane of postgang. symp. and parasymp. nerons Chromaffin cells of adrenal medullae Sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers (motor end plate)
Nicotinic receptors tend to be excitatory or inhibitory?
Where are Muscarinic receptors mostly found?
Effectors innercated by parasymp. post gang. neurons swear glands innnervated by colinergic symp. post gang. neurons Skeletal muscle blood vessels innervated by cholinergic symp. postgang. neurons.
Muscarinic receptors tend to be excitatory or inhibitory?
smooth muscle fibers. mucosal membranes, iris of eye salivary glands sweat glands. Excitation
decreases cAMP smooth muscles pancreas platelets in blood inhibition
Metabolic Effects and increases cAMP in cytoplasm Cardiac muscle fibers Kidney Pitutitary Adipose cells Excitation
relaxation of Smooth muscles Ciliary muscles in eye Liver Inhibition
Brown Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Thermogenesis
3 kinds of sympathetic ganglia
Sympathetic chain ganglia Collateral Suprarenal Medullae
Sympathetic chan ganglia
both sides of vertebra thoracic cavity head and limbs in body wall
Collateral Ganglia
anterior to vertebral cavities tissues and organs of the abdomnopelvic cavity
Suprarenal Medullae
Adrenal glands Released into bloodstream
splanich cells and c___ cells and

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