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History and Evolution of Animation Presented by Abigail Atiwag History and Evolution of Animation Animation has a rich history and has evolved significantly over the years Here s an overview of its journeys Early Origins Pre 19th Century Early forms of animation can be traced back to prehistoric times where cave paintings depicted animals in motion sequences In ancient civilizations like Egypt pottery and tomb paintings showed sequential drawings that hinted at movement Early 19th Century The concept of animation as we know it today started taking shape in the 19th century Phenakistoscopes and zoetropes were invented using spinning disks with sequential images to create the illusion of motion when viewed through slots or slits Late 19th to Early 20th Century The first animated films emerged during this period with pioneers like mile Reynaud creating short animated projections using his Praxinoscope In 1906 J Stuart Blackton created Humorous Phases of Funny Faces considered one of the earliest animated films Golden Age of Animation 1920s 1960s This period saw significant advancements in animation techniques and the rise of iconic studios like Disney Warner Bros and Fleischer Studios Steamboat Willie 1928 featuring Mickey Mouse was one of Disney s early successes marking the start of synchronized sound in animation Technicolor brought color to animation adding a new dimension to storytelling Warner Bros introduced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies featuring characters like Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck Hanna Barbera Productions pioneered television animation with shows like The Flintstones and The Jetsons 1960s 1990s The introduction of xerography in the 1960s streamlined the animation process making it more efficient and cost effective Anime gained popularity in Japan with influential works like Astro Boy 1963 and Studio Ghibli films Computer generated imagery CGI started to be used in the late 1970s and became more prominent in the 1990s with films like Toy Story 1995 the first feature length CGI film by Pixar 21st Century CGI continued to dominate animated films with studios like Pixar DreamWorks and Disney producing visually stunning and critically acclaimed movies The popularity of adult oriented animated series grew with shows like The Simpsons Family Guy and South Park becoming cultural phenomena Streaming platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime facilitated the production and distribution of animated content globally leading to a diverse range of animated shows and films Throughout its history animation has evolved from hand drawn techniques to computer generated imagery pushing boundaries in storytelling technology and artistic expression Pre Cinema Animation Devices Phenakistoscope 1832 Invented by Joseph Plateau it consisted of a spinning disk with slots and sequential images inside When viewed through the slots and spun it created the illusion of motion Zoetrope 1834 Developed independently by several inventors including William George Horner and tienne Jules Marey the zoetrope used a similar principle to the phenakistoscope but with images on a strip inside a cylinder viewed through vertical slits Praxinoscope 1877 Invented by Charles mile Reynaud it improved upon the zoetrope by using mirrors to create a more stable and brighter animation experience Pioneers of Animation mile Cohl 1857 1938 A French caricaturist and animator Cohl is considered one of the earliest pioneers of animation He created the first animated film using hand drawn animation techniques titled Fantasmagorie 1908 Winsor McCay 1867 1934 An American cartoonist and animator McCay is known for his groundbreaking work in animation He created the first animated character with a distinct personality Little Nemo 1911 and produced the iconic short film Gertie the Dinosaur 1914 Eadweard Muybridge 1830 1904 While not an animator in the traditional sense Muybridge s contributions were crucial to the development of animation He conducted motion studies using multiple cameras to capture sequential images of humans and animals in motion paving the way for the understanding of motion picture projection Development of Animation Technology Cel Animation Introduced in the early 1900s cel animation involved drawing characters and backgrounds on transparent celluloid sheets cels and photographing them in sequence to create the illusion of movement Stop Motion Animation This technique involves manipulating physical objects or puppets frame by frame to create movement Innovators like Willis O Brien known for King Kong in 1933 and Ray Harryhausen known for Jason and the Argonauts in 1963 popularized stop motion animation Computer Animation The introduction of computers revolutionized animation in the late 20th century Pixar s Toy Story 1995 was the first feature length film entirely created using CGI marking a significant milestone in animation history Digital Animation Tools Advances in software like Adobe Animate Autodesk Maya and Blender have made animation more accessible and versatile These tools allow animators to create 2D and 3D animations with greater precision and efficiency THANK YOU

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SLU CMM 206 - History and Evolution of Animation

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