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1 18 24 Lifespan Perspective life span Development the pattern of change beginning at conception and continuing through the Lifespan perspective the perspective that development is lifelong multidimensional multidirectional plastic multidisciplinary and contextual Development involves growth maintenance and regulation and is constructed through biological sociocultural and individual factors working together Dimensions of Lifespan Perspective contextual Development is lifelong multidimensional multidirectional plastic multidisciplinary and Lifelong growth throughout life Multidimensional development is biological cognitive and socioemotional Plastic the capacity for change Multidisciplinary studied across multiple fields Contextual influenced by historical economic social and cultural factors Contextual Influences historical events Normative age graded influences are similar for individuals in a particular age group Normative history graded influences have common generational experiences due to Nonnormative life events are unusual occurrences that have a major life impact Contemporary Concerns Health and well being being Parenting and Education Lifestyles and psychological states have powerful influences on health and well Many questions involve pressure on the contemporary family and conditions impairing the effectiveness of U S schools Sociocultural contexts and diversity Culture generation to generation information about their developing Cross cultural behavior patterns beliefs and all other products of a group passed on from comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures to gain Ethnicity a characteristic based on cultural heritage nationality characteristics religion Socioecomminic grouping of people based on similar occupations educational or Gender characteristics of people as men or women Social policy a national government s course of action designed to promote welfare of and language economic characteristics its citizens There has been an almost overwhelming increase in use of technology at all Social policies include Increase in of children living poverty Role of resilience in overcoming adversity Well being of older adults in homes Technology points in human development Topics to consider Effects of language development Screen time vs physical activity Is media multitasking harmful How are older adults adapting The Nature of Development BIological Cognitive and Socioemotional Processes Biological changes in an individual s physical nature Cognitive changes in an individual s thought intelligence and language Socioemotional changes in an individual s relationships emotions and personality Biological cognitive and socioemotional processes interact as individuals develop These processes are bidirectional A developmental period refers to a time frame in a person s life characterized by certain Periods of Development features Prenatal Infancy Toddler Early childhood Middle to late childhood Adolescence early adulthood Conceptions of Age For types of age From a life span perspective an overall age profile of an individual involves not just chronological but also Biological age a person s age in terms of biological health Physiological age a person s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of a same chronological age Social age a person s connectedness with others and adoption of social 1 30 24 Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal pattern developmental sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top the head Physical growth and differentiation top to bottom Proximodistal pattern sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities Growth is episodic A baby may grow a lot one day and then none the next day Height and Weighft The average american newborn is 20 inches long and weighs 7 6 pounds Most newborns are 18 to 22 inches long and weigh between 5 and 10 pounds Babies grow about 1 inch per month during the first year By 2 years of age Infants weigh approximately 26 to 32 pounds They average 32 to 35 inches in height The Brain The brain is still developing rapidly in infancy Shaken baby syndrome includes brain swelling and hemorrhaging and affects hundreds of babies in the U S each year Noninvasive tools that measure brain activity Electroencephalogram EEG Functional near infrared The forebrain the portion farthest from the spinal cord includes the cerebral cortex and the structures beneath it The cerebral cortex has two hemispheres each with four lobes Frontal occipital Temporal Parietal Lateralization specialization in function in one hemisphere of cerebral cortex or the other however both are needed to function Changes in Neurons Myelination the pace of which varies Increased connectivity among neurons creates new neural pathways Connections that are used become stronger while the unused ones are replaced or disappear they are pruned Changes in regions of the brain region Early Experience and the brain The age in which blooming and pruning of synapse occur varies by brain Both heredity and environment are thought to influence the timing and course Children in a deprived environment may have depressed brain activity For some individuals the effects of deprived environments are reversible The brain demonstrates both flexibility and resistance Neuroconstructivist View Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain s development The brain has plasticity and is context dependent The child s cognitive development is closely linked to development of the brain Sleep The typical newborn sleeps 16 to 17 hours a day Sleep related problems affect 20 to 30 of infants Factors include bedtime routines maternal depression and screen time REM sleep in infants Half of an infant s sleep is spent in REM sleep the most in the life span REM sleep may improve added self stimulation and promote brain activity Sleep may be positively linked to cognitive development Sleep promotes brain maturation and memory consolidation Shorter sleep duration has been linked to inattentiveness and hyperactivity Nutrition by 40 percent From birth to 1 year of age infants nearly triple their weight and increase length Human milk or an alternative formula is the baby s source of nutrients and energy The benefits of breastfeeding for both baby and mother significant Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced


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Mizzou HDFS 2400 - Lifespan Perspective

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