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Puberty a brain neuroendocrine process occurring primarily during early adolescence that provides stimulation for rapid physical development Not a single sudden event Pinpointing its beginning and end is difficult Chapter 9 Adolescence Changes in Adolescence Ages to 10 to 18 years old Physically Puberty Cognitively Socioemotionally Middle school and high school What Triggers Adolescence Menarche first menstrual cycle Spermarche first production of sperm Physical Changes Primary Sex Characteristics Eggs and sperm Changes in sex organs Secondary Sex Characteristics Body hair Hormone Changes Hormones powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried throughout the body by the bloodstream Hypothalamus a structure in the brain that monitors eating and sex Pituitary Gland glands that are important in giving rise to pubertal changes in Testes in males ovaries in females The hormone testosterone is associated with increase in height and deepening The hormone estradiol is associated with breast uterine and skeletal the body of the voice development Pubertal Timing around 13 to 17 For boys the pubertal sequence begins around 10 to 13 years age and ends For girls menarche normally occurs between 9 to 15 In the U S the average age of menarche had declined significantly since the mid nineteenth century Genetic influence Mothers and sisters age of menarche Early maturation and girls Associated with depression negative body image eating disorders substance use early sexual experiences aggressive behavior Early maturation and boys Positive body image involved earlier in delinquency sex and substance use Body Image Adolescents are preoccupied with their bodies body surveillance Social media negatively affects adolescents body image Social comparison Diets and Puberty Diets and levels of health and nutrition Puberty begins earlier in cultures with good nutrition and health care Evidence in menarche african americans 12 2 African 10 12 The corpus callosum where fibers connect the brains left and right The Brain hemispheres Trends in Adolescence Adolescent Sexuality Sexuality capacity for sexual feelings Learning to manage sexual feelings Developing feelings of sexual intimacy Learning how to regulate sexual behavior Developing a sexual identity LGBTQIA Many paths to understanding sexual orientation Some struggle w same sex attractions in childhood avoid Some are abrupt Majority experience some degrees of other sex attraction The process is more stressful than for heterosexual youth often including disclosing their sexuality identity to family members New average age of coming out in the US is 16 Homophobia causes trauma Suicide depression drug abuse Sexual Initiation 57 3 of 12th graders reported having sexual intercourse Compared with 30 of 9th graders Average age is 17 Black teens have the highest rates White teens have the lowest rates Risk factors in adolescents sexual activity Many adolescents are not emotionally prepared to handle sexual experiences Early sexual activity risky behaviors Substance abuse especially in early adolescents sexual risk practices 90 of people with bulimia nervosa are WOMEN Chapter 10 Socioemotional Development in Adolescence What is Identity The fact of being who or what a person is Individuals can have multiple identities identity components Synthesizing the identity components can be a lengthy process Negations and affirmations of various roles Identity development takes place in bits and pieces Erikson s view Identity vs identity confusion The search for identity is aided by a psychosocial moratorium the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy Adolescents experiment with different roles and personalities Developmental Changes The individual can now sort through and synthesize childhood identities to construct a path toward memory James Marcia classifies individuals at this stage based on the existence of or extent of their crisis or commitment Crisis a period of identity development Marcia s 4 Statuses of Identity Identity diffusion individuals who have not yet explores Identity foreclosure those who have made a commitment but havent experienced a crisis Identity moratorium those who are in crisis but commitments are absent Identity achievement those who have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment Newer Model processes The newer dual cycle identity model separates identity development into two Formation cycle that relies on exploration in breadth Maintenance cycle relies on exploration in depth as well as reconsideration of commitments Management and Monitoring A key aspect of the managerial role of parenting is effective monitoring Supervising adolescents choice of social settings activities and friends Supervising academic efforts Higher levels of monitoring and rule enforcement are linked to Engaging later in sex and using condoms Lower rates of cigarettes and marijuana use Getting more sleep Better health behavior in adolescence and college A current interest focuses on adolescents management of their parents access to information Disclosing or concealing information about their activities When parents engage in positive parenting practices adolescents are more likely to disclose information This disclose is linked to positive adolescent adjustment Adolescents who engage in problem behaviors are more secretive Mobile media such as smartphones are mainly driving the increased media use A national survey revealed dramatic increases in adolescents use of social media by adolescents and text messaging 24 percent of adolescents are online almost constantly Autonomy and Attachment Parents must weigh competing needs for control and autonomy for independence and connection The push for autonomy may puzzle and frustrate some parents Adolescents often have a strong desire to make their own decisions and to spend time with friends When given autonomy teens feel they have more independence and a better parental relationship Boys are typically given more independence Cultural diversity in timing and roles must also be considered Parent Adolescent Conflicts everyday family life Parent adolescent conflict goes up in early adolescence but much of it involves Rarely major dilemmas drugs and delinquency Conflicts may serve a positive developmental function by facilitating transition to autonomy When conflict is prolonged is has worse outcomes Most teens prefer smaller number of friendships that are more intense and Peer Topics

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Mizzou HDFS 2400 - Chapter 9: Adolescence

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