Mizzou HDFS 2400 - HDFS 2400 Final Review (5 pages)

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HDFS 2400 Final Review



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HDFS 2400 Final Review

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Hdfs 2400 - Principles of Human Development
Principles of Human Development Documents
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HDFS REVIEW Theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freund s Theory Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Cognitive Theories Piaget s Theory Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory Information Processing Theory Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Skinner s Operant Conditioning Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory Ecological Theories Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Theory Psychoanalytic Theories Describe development in terms of unconscious processes that are heavily weighed on emotion They say early experiences with Parents shape development Freund s Theory Said talking to patients would restore their psychological health called Psychoanalysis Convinced that patient s problems were the result of early life experience Said we pass through 5 stages of pshycho sexual development 1 oral 2 anal 3 phallic 4 latency 5 Genital Say s our basic personality is shaped in first 5 years Erikson s Psychological Theory Played off Freund s Theory Said we develop in psychosocial stages rather than Psychosexual Said our basic personality is changing throughout life Believed in importance of both early and later life experience Said there are 8 staged of development we go through in life Says development comes after there is some sort of a crisis Stages 1 Trust v Mistrust age 1 Babies learn it is okay to trust someone They learn world is a safe place if they have good parents Children develop hope 2 Autonomy v Shame and Doubt age 1 3 Kids learn independence They develop will ex They want to play with a toy They learn behavior is their own If pushed or punished too much they will develop shame and doubt 3 Initiative v Guilt age 3 5 Kids learn responsible behavior If child is irresponsible they will feel guilty 4 Industry v inferiority age 6 Kids gain knowledge and try to learn Negative outcome is inferiority if they cannot learn something well 5 Identity v Identity confusion 10 20 years Find out who they are and what they are about 6 Intimacy v isolation age 20 30 Develop task of forming relationships Intimacy must be achieved or else isolation will develop 7 Generativity v stagnation 40 s 30 s Generativity adults want to help the younger generation to develop useful life skills Stagnation The feeling of adults not leaving anything behind 8 Integrity v despair age 60 A person reflects on the past If they think they lived a good life integrity will be achieved if not despair Cognitive Theories Emphasis conscious thoughts Focus on complex thinking skills Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory Says children go through four stages of cognitive development as they understand the world Organization and adaption help us understand the world We organize our experiences ex Separate important ideas from less Important And connect ideas And we adapt according to new environmental changes Says we learn through conducting experiments no one is born with knowledge Schemes organization of knowledge The way you do things Assimilation when you get new info and out it into existing scheme Accommodation when you get new info and change entire scheme Stages 1 Sensorimotor stage birth 2 years Say infants construct understanding of world by seeing and hearing things and coordinating those things with motor skills 2 Preoperational stage 2 7 years Kids learn to represent the world with words He says however that kids this age still can t perform operations Meaning they can t do something mentally that they could do physically Ex Imagining putting two sticks together to see how long they would be without actually physically doing it 3 Concrete operational stage 7 11 years Kids can now reason logically without physically doing something Ex they will know how long two sticks would be if they were put together without actually doing it 4 Formal operational stage 11 15 They begin to understand things easier They think more logically ask more questions Make hypothesis Vygotsky s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory Gives social interaction more important role in development than Piaget Says social cultural interactions guide development A society who uses computers will raise their children to use computers to learn Information Processing Theory Says that people manipulate monitor and strategize information to learn it Behavioral and Socio Cognitive Theories Development is described through behaviors learned Skinner s Operant Conditioning Uses Rewards and punishments to teach behavior Bandura s Social Cognitive Theory Focuses heavily on observation learning His module of learning has three parts behavior person cognition environment Ex Bobo doll experiment allowed children to watch an adult beat up a blown up clown with a bat When adult left room the child then beat up the clown too Bandura s Ecological Theory Identifies 5 environmental systems Microsystem mesosystem exosystem macrosystem chronosystem Says kids need social factors to show how they develop Microsystem Immediate family Mesosystem school home interaction Children whose parents rejected them might have difficulty developing positive relations with a teacher Exosystem Links between kids and things they don t interact with but are still affected by I e Parent s job Macrosystem Cultural norms like religion Chronosystem Patterning of environmental events and transitions over life s course Chapter 16 Notes Erikson s Theory of Integrity v Despair adults will reflect on the past and either feel good about the things they accomplished or feel despair over the things they didn t accomplish Activity Theory the more active adults are in their life the more satisfied they will be Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Older adults have smaller social networks than younger adults They spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have rewarding relationships with Selective optimization with compensation theory successful aging is linked with three main factors selection optimization and compensation Selection older adults have a reduced capacity and loss in function Optimization suggests that it is possible to maintain performances in some areas through continued practice and the use of technology Compensation comes relent when life s tasks require a level of activity that is higher than the current level of the adult s performance potential Personality in late adulthood continues to change Older adults are more agreeable than middle age adults or younger people Ageism Discrimination against other s because of their age Men are more likely to stereotype older people than women Technology and older


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