Mizzou HDFS 2400 - HDFS 2400 Midterm (17 pages)

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HDFS 2400 Midterm



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HDFS 2400 Midterm

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Pages:
17
School:
University of Missouri
Course:
Hdfs 2400 - Principles of Human Development
Principles of Human Development Documents
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HDFS 2400 Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Research Naturalistic observation observation that occurs in a real world setting without any attempt to manipulate situation Standardized test given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring Case study in depth examination of an individual Descriptive research aims to observe and record behavior Correlational research focuses on describing the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics Correlational coefficient number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables Experiment carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors is believed to influence the behavior being studied is manipulated and all other fats are held constant Cross sectional approach research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at on time Longitudinal approach research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time Cohort effects effects that are due to a subject s time of birth or generation but not age Development pattern of movement change that begins at conception and continues through the lifespan Multi dimensional biological cognitive socioemotional o Biological processes changes in an individual s physical nature o Cognitive processes changes in an individual s thought intelligence and language o Socioemotional processes changes in an individual s relationships with other people emotions and personality Plasticity capacity for change changes in neural connections during development as a result of environmental interactions as well as neural changes induced by learning Stability change Multidirectional some components expand and others shrink throughout life o EX language Multi disciplinary social scientists genetics neurologists etc Occurs in context o Context setting in which development occurs which is influenced by historical economic social and cultural factors o Normative age graded influences biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group o Normative history graded influences biological and environmental influences that are associated with history common for people of a particular generation o Non normative life events unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person s life not applicable to many individuals Domains biological cognitive socioemotional Periods of development o Prenatal period conception to birth o Infancy birth to 18 24 months o Early childhood end of infancy to 5 6 years preschool o Middle and late childhood 6 to 11 years elementary o Adolescence 10 12 to 18 22 years o Early adulthood late teens through 30s o Middle adulthood 40 to 60 1 HDFS 2400 Midterm Study Guide o Late adulthood 60s till death 4 Conceptions of age o Chronological age o Biological age age in terms of biological health o Psychological age adaptive capacities compared with those of others of same chronological age o Social age refers to connectedness with others and social roles individuals adopt 2 Lifespan perspective human development starts before birth and continues through the rest of our days development is lifelong multidimensional multidirectional plastic multidisciplinary and contextual Involves growth maintenance and regulation Constructed through biological sociocultural and individual factors working together Health and well being Parenting and education Sociocultural contexts and diversity o Culture behavior patterns beliefs and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation o Cross cultural studies comparisons of one culture with one or many others to provide information about the degree to which children s development is similar universal across culture and the degree to which it is culture specific o Ethnicity range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage including nationality race religion and language o Socioeconomic Status SES refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational educational and economic characteristics o Gender psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being a male or a female o Social policy national government s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens Major debates o Nature nurture debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature organism s biological inheritance and by nurture environmental experiences o Continuity discontinuity debate about the extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change continuity or distinct stages discontinuity o Stability change debate about the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change Theories understand concepts focus on application Psychoanalytic theories holding that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion that behavior is merely a surface characteristic that is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior HDFS 2400 Midterm Study Guide 3 Freud s Theory Oral stage infant s pleasure centers on the mouth birth 1 1 5 years Anal stage child s pleasure focuses on the anus 1 1 5 years to 3 years Phallic stage child s pleasure focuses on the genitals 3 6 years Latency stage child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills 6 years to puberty Genital stage time a sexual reawakening source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family puberty onward Erikson s Theory 8 stages unfold which consist of unique developmental task Trust v mistrust infancy first year o Expectation that world will be good and pleasant Autonomy v shame and doubt infancy 1 3 years o Behavior is one s own assert sense of independency heavy punishment leads to shame and doubt Initiative v guilt early childhood preschool 3 5 years o Encounter challenges that require active purposeful responsible behavior guilt may arise if child is irresponsible and made to feel anxious Industry v inferiority middle and late childhood elementary 6years puberty o Children need to direct energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills child may develop sense of incompetence unproductivity Identity v identity confusion adolescence 10 20 years o Finding out who one is Intimacy v isolation early adulthood 20s 30s o Task of forming intimate relationships Generatively v stagnation middle adulthood 40s 50s o Concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives stagnation


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