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FSU LAH 1093 - Final LAH Study Guide

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Argentine TangoOriginated from the slums of Buenos AiresMarked by nostalgiaCaudillosRule by one (autocracy)Personalismo: they were voted on personality rather than policiesMachismo: men on horseback with sexual powerPatronage networks: they gave gifts to friends so they wouldn’t overthrow themAutocracyBelief of “Rule by one”Exhibited by Caudillos and still exhibited by neocolonialismBrazilian IndependenceNicknamed “Bloodless Independence”King Joao of Portugal leaves Brazil due to Portuguese importance, and leaves son Pedro in BrazilPedro I declared Brazil an independent countryGet British recognition in return for trade benefits, Portugal wanted moneyPedro IIAbolished slave trade by law, but slavery still exists (due to economic dependence on slavery)-once again abolished in 1850Pedro II got sick, put her daughter Isabella in power and she abolished slavery all togetherPedro II gets overthrown, new constitution is formedHaitian RevolutionColony didn’t want France giving ordersSlave revolt involving Bois Caiman ceremony/ritualFrench forced emancipation of slaves in all coloniesToussaint Louverture makes constitution, eventually capturedDessalines declared independence (Haiti couldn’t be a part of France since France wanted to revert to slavery)Amis De NoirsFriends of color people (who are free) that fought for white & black equality (to free colored people)Movement in ParisVincent Oge (who organized an uprising in Grand Riviere) was a member of this groupMonroe DoctrineStated that the US is the protector of the western hemisphere and allowed intervention into any countryif deemed necessaryGeneral Valeriano WeylerPut revolutionaries (Cubans) in reconcentration campsMany people die, nicknamed “the butcher”-people died due to poor conditions, not killed directlyToussaint LouvertureOriginally a Spanish creole slaveAfter French freed slaves in all colonies, he switched sides to Haiti for freedomDefeated the British for the FrenchDeclared by French as governor of the island; shortly after he drafted a constitution for autonomyNapoleon sends in his brother LeClerc to reconquer the islandLouverture eventually surrenders after coercion from LeClerc using Louverture’s two sonsPositivismScientific way of showing that whites are superior/better than othersWays of proving superiority involved owning land and dressing sophisticatedlyTreaty of VelascoTreaty between Mexico and US stating Mexicans had to stay south of Rio Grande River (forming the territorial boundaries for Texas)Simon BolivarFormed the republic Gran Colombia (first union of countries in Latin America)Became president of Venezuela and led it to independence (along with independence for Ecuador and Bolivia)Nicknamed “El Libertador” due to freeing of many people/slaves/countriesFrancisco de MirandaNicknamed “Le precursor”Was a captain in the Spanish army (bought his title)British tried to take over Cuba but he fought against themBrought up on charges by Spain, fled to the USLater returns Spain and stated that all Latin American countries should be unitedGot some support for this idea from Britain, Venezuela doesn’t back him up and he goes into exileDebt PeonageIdea of neocolonialism that paid people in vouchersPeople went to sponsored stores to buy things with vouchersCreated a continual cycle of debt (elites didn’t need to go into debt)BicycleInvention of the bicycle changed social norms in the following ways:-allowed for alone time of couples (before women were not allowed to go alone on dates, but on bicycles women could be alone with a man)-Women’s clothing changed appropriately (dresses now allowed for pedaling)US Occupation of CubaThree goals: make Cuba self-governing, repair damage from the Spanish-American war, and fully involve Cuba into the US economyPlatt Amendment: Gave Cuba independence, but US would always “hover over” them-Cuba couldn’t make treaties with other countries-Cuba had to grant land to US for military bases/coal stations-Cuba is required to improve sanitation-The Platt Amendment had to be in the Cuban ConstitutionCarlos Manuel de CespedesFreed all of his slaves to help with the Cuban Revolution against Spain35 landowners also free their slaves in response; this leads to a force of 12,000 slaves under Cespedes for the revolutionNeocolonialismBegan with the depression in 1870Allowed for foreign aid (belief that outside help would be better than recreating the government)-US built railroads in Latin America (not for transportation, but for trade)-Required US and Britain to build ports-Need for people to make weapons for others during WWINationalism replaced neocolonialism in the 30’sJose Tomas BovesNumber one enemy of Venezuela, went head to head with BolivarRecruited cowboys (llaneros)-mainly black, recruited by saying they can get revenge on whites (and take their land)Beat Bolivar and Bolivar flees to New GranadaGroup was called “Legion of Hell”Miguel HidalgoFirst revolutionary leader for Mexican IndependenceFormed attack which led to the name “Grito de Delores”-All white people killed, even white allies were killedAbolished slavery and outlawed Indian TributeMarched on Mexico City with 60,000 (marched using Guerrilla tactics)Spanish army pushed them back and Hidalgo gets captured (eventually replaced by Jose Maria Morelos)Mexican War of ReformWar between conservatives (wanting to keep things the same) and liberals (wanting new rule with more freedoms)Conservatives invited help from Spanish and the liberals invited help from the BritishFrench Empire in MexicoNapoleon III decides to take over Mexico, but had to stay in France so he put Maximilian as his representative to do the jobCinco de Mayo- unlikely win for Mexicans in a battle against the FrenchFrance gets distracted by the Franco-Prussian war and moves out of MexicoFilibusteringIn Texas, Americans sought to win land through fighting wars with other peopleAaron Burr thought he could take Texas by going through Louisiana (he thought the US would back him up, but the US didn’t and he failed)Santeria-Has urban origins, but not plantation basedCombo of African religion and ChristianityCuban fugitive slave law: Returned runaway slaves and slaves had to be taught Christianity (which was supposed to stop them from running away)-Allowed to work on holidays (worked 24/7) because of sugarGood Government law: masters were given power over slaves’ religion, and had to be educated to educate their slaves, and


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