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LectureChapter 10- Decentralization- All theories focused on the criminal (offender focus); they were trying to explain official statistics (which are only a part of all crime because not all crime is reported to the police)- 1 in 5 of elder people, they are subject to fraud - Official statistics are based off police practices- Primary deviance: deviance known to the police- Labeling theories, different from other theories, says if you can’t see a phenomenon then you can’t describe ito We have a way around the dilemma, we will only try to describe the known crimes and the consequences of police response, or secondary deviance (deviance that occurs after the subject, the offender, accepts a deviant identity)- Frank Tannenbaum, Crime in the Community (1938)o The dramatization of evil Every child at some point engaged in “normal youthful misbehavior” (playing sports, pranks) At some point this normal youthful misbehavior can cause someone to report it as illegal  We are susceptible to negative cues  This goes nowhere, and receives no real attention for this statement- 1950: Edward Lemert, Social Pathology o Secondary deviance o Lemert was trying to strength Tannenbaum’s statemento He argues that everyone can engage in primary deviance, but we still won’t see ourselves as devianto Tolerance quotient: at some point we all succumb to those negative cues (everyone does this at different times)  If you accept a negative self-label, then you will behavior in that negative self-identity - All theories until this time focused on bad offenders, labeling theory said we should look at reactions to that offender (labeling theory was big on the west coast)o This shift led to a bunch of studies focused on looking at reactions to that offendero Critical law in actions studieso America’s CJS operated with “disinterested professionalism”; CJS “took on a life of its own”  Guided by its formal goals  But this all changed with labeling theory - 1964: Justice without trial by Skolnick o Classic study on American policeo He said that American police, if you look at their disinterested professionalism, they are charged with maintenance of order under the rule of law (If I see you driving down the street because I have a bad feeling about you, which is illegal, but what if I find something?)o American police have conflicting views (order vs. law)o Justice without trial (police go around the law); they are capable of figuring our strategies of maintaining order - David Sudnow, Normal Crimes o He discovered the mechanics of plea bargaining o He found that the court system is supposed to focus on maintaining innocence, due process, etc. He says that actually they focus on guilt If you want a jury trial, they will throw disproportionate punishments at you because that messes up the system - It was concluded that America’s CJS was doing more harm than good, as a result the policy mandate was to try keeping juveniles and adults out of the system- 1960’s: LBJ became president after Kennedy was assassinatedo LBJ believed that if we used the same approach that we used to fight cancer/go to the moon, we could get rid of crime He created the ‘war on crime’ He was known to be one of the most capable politicians  In the case of crime, he came up with-- Safe Streets Act- Omnibus Crime Bill - ($30 million, escalated to $850, for law enforcement assistance administration LEAA- created in 1967)o Seeing that recommendations to eliminate crime were implemented across the U.So The way they were going to accomplish this was to pay the local jurisdictions and make sure they do it (Reciprocal agreement- take on these reforms and we will pay you)o Paid for reformo Subsidy- not intended to permanently fund these programs o Seed money - Diversion movement: (looking at juvenile delinquency) embraced labeling theoryo They wanted to keep children out of the system so they would not see themselves as delinquent, and thus keep doing delinquent actso Embrace diversion to keep children out of the systemo Whole family intervention program - Deinstitutionalization: not focused on delinquents per se, but focused on status offenders  Never put these children in an institution Not focused on juveniles, adults became involved too  If you’re mentally ill, you shouldn’t be put into an institution. You should be put into a mental institutiono Diversion was on the adult level as well - Decentralizing Adult Correctionso Des Moines community based corrections project  Exemplary by DOJ 5 replication sites to see if this worked First level, If you had good community ties, you would be released on ROR Second level, If you were a little worse, then you would be supervised (periodically) Third level, more intensive supervision Fourth level, remanded to community based residential center (sleep at night, but you can do things during the day) Des Moines had net-widening (it was not a good alternative to bail)  Latent consequences to Des Moines was watching the whole family, not just the delinquento If you can’t post bail, you’re family suffers repercussionso The belief was, that America needed major bail reform- Virginia Satire: conjoint family therapyo There’s an image of the family unit. Everybody has a role to play. o Have family talk about their situation, and then figure out what the problem iso Should the state be involved with families that don’t have clear abuse? The literature shows it does not help - **Net-widening was confirmed by case studies (done by Blomberg)- county unit of government that operated a juvenile court system (included juvenile court, detention center, county probation services, residential institutions run by county)- the county is a correctional establishmento (1)Looked at county’s development reasoning for diversion –idea This particular county saw diversion as a great opportunity because they got federal dollars to help expand services. There was a prevailing belief that it was always better to expand services, rather than to pull them away Operated ranch for boys, place for girls, probation service  Population viewed diversion as informal probation with services  “North County” viewed diversion as informal probation with service/control (administrative status)  Gave opportunity for intervention  Ever present problems with scarcity o (2) implementation –practice Implemented

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FSU CJC 3010 - Chapter 10- Decentralization

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