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Corrections Final Study GuideThe Death Penalty - Large increase of death Row inmates, but large decrease if executions - 38 States and Fed Govt had capital statutes Death Row in FL- Furman V Georgia: in 1972, spared 95 death row inmates, converted them to life sentences; began the questioning of the death penalty - Costs Aprox $7,000 more to house a death row inmate than a reg inmate- Electric chair was used from 1923-2000Evidence of a Broken System - Higher state and Def Courts have overturned majority of death sentences, allocated them to life- 2 governors placed a moratorium on the death penalty until a commission could decide how fair they were- During the last 25 years, 69 people have been exonerated through DNA evidence- Signed confessions aren’t always reliableGuided discretion for Capital Cases- Bifurcated Trial- Trial to determine guilt, then a trial to determine punishment (if necessary)- Statutorily enumerated circumstances- guided the discretion whether to sentence the offender to death- Appellate Review- mandatory review of death sentence convictions to determine consistency and fairness- Death is different Doctrine- death sentence is qualitatively different then other sentences- Majority of Death Row inmates lawyers were more likely to have been disbarred, suspended, or disciplined (court appointed attorneys )LWOP- Public supports the death penalty over LWOP (public wants murderers condemned)- Deterrence- Death penalty deters others from committing murder- Incapacitation- murderer cant murder again if theyre killed- Moral necessity- morally appropriate to kill a killerLocal Jails- Increase in number of indiv entered into jail sysyem- Majority are males, 37% already convicted, 63% still waiting trial4 types of Inmates:- Those waiting for trial- Those who were sentenced to jail – misdemeanors and those convicted of less serious felonies- Convicted felons awaiting transfer to prison- Material witnesses held for safety and assurance ( comprise small %)- Rabbles: those affected by societies most pressing problems - Majority of Jails are run by the local govts, particularly the local Sheriffs Office3 Categories of Jail Designs 1) Traditional/ First Gen- long, linear hallways with cells lining the hallway (typical jail ideal)2) Remote supervision/ Second Gen- Indirect surveillance of inmates through CCTV- staff doesn’t leave the control booth, minimal interaction with inmates3) Direct Supervision/ third gen- attempts to normalize the jail environment- small units called pods- single occupancy rooms that surround day room- Direct supervision jails allow for ease in classification and programming of inmates- studies show both inmates and staff like Direct supervision more- Disadvantages of Direct Supervision Jails- Costly to build, more services for fewer inmates ( not cost efficient)Important issues affecting Jails - Local Politics- jails compete with other local entities like schools for local funding (unlike prisons)- Overcrowding- Lack of written standards in jails leads to quicker deterioration of jailsAlternatives to Jail at Pre- Trial Stage- Police Lock ups- police hold offenders until they can be questioned/ processed- Penal Farms: used for misdemeanants and felons serving longer jail terms, used in the field for agriculture Special Populations in Prison4 special Types:- Females- Elderly- Mentally Ill- Diseased Female Inmates- Increasing at a much faster rate than males- Most growth due to the result of more non-violent and drug offenders being sentenced to prison- Most (75%) are moms caring for young children- Scarcity of Womens facilities leads to many being far from their homes, so they don’t get to see their families (only 50% see their children while incarcerated)- HIV infection more prevalent in females than males- Female inmates pose a minimal security risk compared to males, but have a higher cost to maintain and have a higher chance of physical/ psychological issuesElderly- “ graying Inmate Population”- Increase in elderly inmate population due to the “get tough” on crime policies- elimination of parole, 85% law, 3 strikes law, etc.- Biggest issue for the elderly= Healthcare Mentally Ill inmates- Closures of mental hospitals/ decrease in their size leads to increases in prison inmates - Transinstitutionalization- as the Mental Health centers Decrease in availability, the number of people going to prison will increase- Inability of correctional facilities to be able to successfully transition these individuals for release leads to them recidivating (Biggest problem is establishing community ties)Diseased Inmates - HIV/ AIDS, TB are the majority of health issues in prisons- TB rate amongst inmates is higher than in general free US population - NY/FL- account for the largest number of HIV + inmates, and together equal ½ of all HIV + inmates in prison in US- AIDS prevalence in prison is 5.5 x more than US population EM as An Effective Corrections StrategyEM Boom- Jessica Lunsford Act- made punishments for sex offenders more severe, created mandatory EM provisions for certain offenders, and created more funding for EM- Shift from Radio Frequency (RF) to GPS- 18+ year offender with a victim 15 or under leads to mandatory EM- RF cheapest at $2 a day, GPS costs $9 daily- Housing 1 inmate for 1 year in prison costs as much as 6 offenders on EM, and 28 offenders on RF- EM reduces the likelihood of failure coupled with strong community tiesEM within family/ Courts- Overall consensus is that EM hinders the offenders family life, Job opportunities, and Social Life- Many Supervising officers believe more needs to be done to educate the judiciary/ prosecution, so that EM becomes a more acceptable way to punish individuals Visitation and Recidivism- 2/3rds of offenders are likely to be rearrested in the 3 years following their initial releaseHypothesis 1- Inmates who are visited in the 12 months prior to release will be less likely to recidivate – Outcome- visited inmates were less likely to recidivate Hypothesis 2- Inmates who are visited in the 12 months prior to release will be less likely to recidivate due to the “ more is better” principle – stronger family and community ties with influential people in their lives will lead to less recidivism - Outcome-the more the inmateswere visited by influential community leaders and family members, the less likely they were to recidivate Hypothesis 3- Onset of recidivism will be delayed relative to

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FSU CJC 3010 - Corrections Final Study Guide

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