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Exam 2 Review• Chapter 7: 20th Century Rehabilitative Idea (1900-1960)• 4 assumptions of the Rehabilitative ideal• All human behavior is a product of antecedent causes we experience through-out our lives• The antecedent causes of behavior can be identified in a tangible fashion• Individual treatment plans can be implemented based on each individuals unique antecedent causes of their behavior• Intervention to treat criminal behavior serves as a therapeutic function• 20th century rehabilitation distinguished itself from the 19th century in 2 ways• rehabilitation ideal stems from the development of scientific disciplines con-cerned with human behavior (reformation used to be focused on person rather than problem)• the rehabilitation ideal completely dominated theoretical and scholarly inquiry • if you find and stop antecedent cause you can deter future criminal behavior• The Chicago school- Social Disorganization • Rockefeller funded the department of Sociology to study the industrial work-force living in the Chicago slums• The goal was to show a relationship between the physical environment and the way people behaved in such situations• Social disorganization or Social Pathology became the theory used to explain crime delinquency in Chicago• Social organization happens when social control is maintained through process,laws, and social norms.• High crime in areas with “socially pathological factors”• poor housing, rapid population increase, poor sanitation• Crime seen as a product of environment/locality rather than personal pathology• Differential Association Theory (Sutherland)• crime is learned through the same processes that law-abiding behaviors are learned• criminality in a person develops due to having more favorable violations of the law rather than unfavorable encounters with violating the law• Sutherland theory of differential association said the CHicago school repre-sented different social organization rather than social disorganization, for the neighborhoods supported criminal behavior• Anomie Theories of Crime causality (Merton 1938)• crime theory to explain higher crime rates in US than england, France and Ger-many• crime and delinquency seen as a symptom of strain between culture accepted aspirations, and the few legitimate options for one to seize them• Everyone wants the American dream, though for most (due to their social situation) legal means wont help them achieve this• described crime in all of US; not just why crime is prevalent in one area over another• 20th century Penal Reform• major growth/bureaucratization of correctional systems• growth due to ideal that offenders can be rehabilitated through individual treat-ment• More is better- the more ways to rehabilitate someone the better (probation, pa-role, jail etc.)• Federal Prisons• 1891- Congress constructed 3 federal penitentiaries• 1st was old military prison in Ft Leavenworth, Kansas• US dept. of Justice took over federal prison system in 1895• 1st built from group up in Atlanta in 1901• 2nd in leavenworth• 3rd in Pennsylvania• No centralized admission in early federal prisons• Federal Bureau of Prison (BOP)• created in 1929 with a sole goal of rehabilitation• American Prison Association• changed its name in 1954 to the AMerican Correctional Association• the terms correctional facility was used in place of prisons• Parole in 20th century• 20th century broadened the group available to parole• requirements for parole were to be a good citizen ad maintain a job• after WW2 parole was revised and even more serious offenders were given op-tion of parole• parole became primary method of prison release• Probation 20th century• idea was to have less caseloads so the officer could properly assist an offenderin securing employment, and education• High caseloads resulted in more surveillance by officer than anything else• Bank Loading• focusing on most important case and ignore the rest•• Prison Subculture•sociological studies of prison life began in the 1930’s•Donald Clemmer- The prison Community (1940)•correctional office at menard penitintiary, illinois•first in depth study of prison•Clemmer found not all inmates fully committed to community•those with longer sentences and unstable personalities more likely to becomeprisonized•structural functionalism•approach to problem of order in a society•views society and social systems as a whole and does not see the individual at the center of society•Social structure•unit of analysis•stabilized networks of interactions between different positions and statuses•Functionalism•Analyzes structures and institutions to see what they can contribute to the whole, especially in terms of order•Prisonization•process by which inmates embrace prison life•level of assimilation in prison culture•stripping process•at entry prisoner is given number and inferior role•intro to inmate code•learning the ways of the prison•both how the guards run things and other inmates do•Prisonization is greatest for an inmate midway through their sentence when the anticipation of release guides them to perform better behavior•The more disciplined oriented a prison is the more likely inmates become pris-onized•Deprivation Model (Sykes)•prison subculture come from pains of imprisonment•pain from corporal punishment just as costly to inmates as psychological pain•5 pains of imprisonment•deprivation of liberty•inmates need permission for everything•moral rejection from society for being a prisoner•“ of autonomy•loss of self-determination•rules and regulation diminishes individuality•“ of goods and services•inmates live in poverty•choices are non-existent•the less we have the worse we usually feel about ourselves•“ of heterosexual relationships•no women lestens self image•no sexual outlets other than same gender•male inmate question their masculinity•“ of security•fellow inmate threaten your safety•no privacy•potential for riots•Adaptive Endurance•realistic and most common method of adapting to ains of prison•social interactions with other inmates•Individualistic vs. Collective Orientation•the more collective the less pains of prison one experience•more collective equals easier adherence to inmate code on daily life•Inmate Code•dont interfere with other inmates•keep grudges and

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FSU CJC 3010 - Exam 2 Review

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