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Study guide Corrections test 1 Intro Yearly cost of corrections 49 billion How many under correction control in 2011 7 million Why is it important we study corrections For the number of those under correctional control is booming 1 8 million 1980 7 million 2011 Prisons are multi facetted communities 14 examples Physical Mental health organizations Restaurants legal services work education drug programs libraries laundry systems Transportations Utilities systems Architectural firms construction maintenance crews Accounting finance services Computer system maintenance Law enforcement Religious services Colonial America when 1600 1790 English Common law 3 oral testimony jury system of peers classifications of crimes What is Net widening Within critical criminology this term is used to describe the effects of providing alternatives to incarceration or diversion programs to direct offenders away from court While all of these programs developed since the late 1960 s were intended to reduce the numbers of offenders in prison or reduce the numbers going to court it has been found that what has happened instead is that the total numbers of offenders under the control of the state have increased while the population targeted for reduction has not been reduced In short the net of social control has been thrown more widely Colonial Law 2 could not contradict English Common law Each Colony established laws based on their religious beliefs Any specific circumstances directly affecting that colony Social Context of Colonial Society 4 small close knit communities obedience to God parents and Authority were enforced non conformity was dealt with my Moral monitors essential to survival conformity obedience order Predestination 3 God controls and pre ordained everything also known as Grim determinism the existing social division across class lines represented God s ordained order and it would be against God s will to try to change it Be content with your place in society and accept it for thats where God chose to place you Prevention of crime never considered for crime was pre determined and was going to happen no matter what Perception of Crime in Colonial America 5 criminal behavior was a result of sin offense against God and society sinful behavior brought on by the devil and must be punished resulted in criminal behavior having a wide range anything from flirting to murder Violations of faith such as blasphemy skipping church were crimes Crime was always punished for the belief was the devil cause it and it wasn t caused by social factors Laws and Justice in Colonial America 4 Laws were written broadly by legislators crimes more often brought to attention of law by citizens and not officials no specific behaviors needed for there was a general consensus of right and wrong with wide range of behaviors illegal kept it easier to order and enforce their strict moral religious codes and values Punishment in response to crime 9 outsiders treated harsher than residents trying to correct a crime by ones self instead of a community punishment was considered a serious transgression fines whippings shaming banishment jails workhouses death penalty FInes 3 most common form of punishment reserved for properties class amount determined by judge and type of crime Whippings 3 second most common slaves would get whipped where others would be fined purpose was to shame and pain Shaming 3 placed in stocks or cage whipped stoned branding mild mutilations not as common as portrayed Banishment 4 most common for outsiders return was punishable by death other communities did not want banished people often died for they had no means outside of town Jails 3 temp holding areas located in locked rooms in houses not cells men women and children all held together Workhouses 4 combo of poorhouse and jail trained offenders to work cared for poor people housed beggars prostitutes minor offenders Death Penalty 4 murders horse thieves unfixable youths MA 56 people killed from 1630 1692 PA 94 offenders executed prior to civil war Hangings Shock Death 2 Granted reprieve from death by hanging given mask and placed noose over head fro up to 3 hours while on the gallows before being noted there sentence was commuted Main Points 7 strict obedience to God and universal societal morals grim determinism crime was cause by devil not preventable laws were broadly conceived Colonies laws could not be contrary to Eng Com law punishment came in many forms the higher in society you were the less physical ones punishments were Period of Transition When 1790 1830 Social Context during the Period of Transition 4 established norms values consistent with capitalism democracy egalitarianism Population explosion and Urbanization Commercial Boom Expansion of Social Economic Geographcial Mobility Capitalism 3 economic system private and corporate ownership of capital goods thrived due to competition on a free market Democracy 4 Government by the people with a majority rule Supreme power invested in the people free elections absence of class distinctions based on inheritance Egalitarianism 2 human equality in social economic and political circumstances advocating removal of inequalities among citizens Population explosion and urbanization 3 major increase 1790 1830 1790 200 000 pop in cities with 25 000 or more citizens 1830 over 1 million pop in cities with 25 000 or more citizens 0 500 000 residents in cities with at least 50 000 residents MA doubled PA tripled NT 5 times over Commercial Boom 3 factories flourished 1790 1807 exports grew from 20 mil 108 mil 17 years Colonial America 7 Corp 1800 over 500 corp Expansion of Social Economic and Geographical Mobility 2 can change class through commercial activities and opportunities westward expansion and start of mass immigrations Why is it called Period of Transition 2 Social Economic Geographical stability to S E G mobility close knit colonial lifestyle individualistic lifestyle The Enlightenment 3 Visions of Man s Nature 4 began in Europe people in control of their own paths people not helpless sinners but rational thinking beings Visions on Man s Nature sensual Utilitarian Egoistic rational Sensual actions based on desire for pleasure and avoidance of pain Utilitarian having the capacity to balance pain pleasure to where we can take pain but the pleasure exceed the associating pain which makes the pain worth it thinking Utilitarian Egoistic Maximize utility of our actions to achieve as much pleasure

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FSU CJC 3010 - Study guide

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