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Study guide Corrections test 1Intro-Yearly cost of corrections?--49 billion-How many under correction control in 2011?--7 million-Why is it important we study corrections?For the number of those under correctional control is booming 1.8 million (1980) -> 7 million (2011)-Prisons are multi-facetted communities. 14 examples:Physical/Mental health organizationsRestaurantslegal serviceswork/education/drug programslibrarieslaundry systemsTransportationsUtilities systemsArchitectural firmsconstruction/maintenance crewsAccounting/finance servicesComputer system/maintenanceLaw enforcementReligious services-What is “Net-widening”?Within critical criminology this term is used to describe the effects of providing alternatives to incarceration or diversion programs to direct offenders away from court. While all of these programs developed since the late 1960's were intended to reduce the numbers of offenders in prison or reduce the numbers going to court, it has been found that what has happened instead is that the total numbers of offenders under the control of the state have increased while the population targeted for reduction has not been reduced. In short, the net of social control has been thrown more widely.Colonial America-when?1600-1790-English Common law (3)oral testimonyjury system of peersclassifications of crimes-Colonial Law (2)could not contradict English Common lawEach Colony established laws based on their religious beliefs Any specific circumstances directly affecting that colony-Social Context of Colonial Society (4)small close knit communitiesobedience to God, parents and Authority were enforcednon conformity was dealt with my “Moral monitors”essential to survival--conformity --obedience--order-Predestination (3)God controls and pre-ordained everythingalso known as Grim determinismthe existing social division across class lines represented God’s ordained order and it would be against God’s will to try to change it.Be content with your place in society and accept it for thats where God chose to place you.Prevention of crime never considered for crime was “pre-determined” and was going to happen no matter what.-Perception of Crime in Colonial America (5)criminal behavior was a result of sin/offense against God and societysinful behavior brought on by the devil and must be punishedresulted in criminal behavior having a wide range--anything from flirting to murderViolations of faith such as blasphemy/skipping church were crimesCrime was always punished for the belief was the devil cause it and it wasn’t caused by social factors.-Laws and Justice in Colonial America (4)Laws were written broadly by legislatorscrimes more often brought to attention of law by citizens and not officialsno specific behaviors needed for there was a general consensus of right and wrong.with wide range of behaviors illegal kept it easier to order and enforce their strict moral/religious codes and values.-Punishment in response to crime (9)outsiders treated harsher than residentstrying to correct a crime by ones self instead of a community punishment was considered a serious transgression.fineswhippingsshamingbanishmentjailsworkhousesdeath penalty-FInes (3)most common form of punishmentreserved for properties classamount determined by judge and type of crime-Whippings (3)second most commonslaves would get whipped where others would be finedpurpose was to shame and pain-Shaming (3)placed in stocks or cagewhipped, stoned, branding, mild mutilationsnot as common as portrayed-Banishment (4)most common for outsidersreturn was punishable by deathother communities did not want banished peopleoften died for they had no means outside of town-Jails (3)temp. holding areas located in locked rooms in houses not cellsmen, women and children all held together -Workhouses (4)combo of poorhouse and jailtrained offenders to workcared for poor peoplehoused beggars prostitutes minor offenders-Death Penalty (4)murders, horse thieves, unfixable youthsMA: 56 people killed from 1630-1692PA: 94 offenders executed prior to civil warHangings-Shock Death (2)Granted reprieve from death by hanging.given mask and placed noose over head fro up to 3 hours while on the gallows before being noted there sentence was commuted.-Main Points (7)strict obedience to God and universal societal moralsgrim determinismcrime was cause by devil; not preventablelaws were broadly conceivedColonies laws could not be contrary to Eng. Com. lawpunishment came in many formsthe higher in society you were the less physical ones punishments werePeriod of TransitionWhen?1790-1830-Social Context during the Period of Transition (4)established norms/values consistent with:--capitalism--democracy--egalitarianismPopulation explosion and UrbanizationCommercial BoomExpansion of Social/Economic/Geographcial Mobility-Capitalism (3)economic systemprivate and corporate ownership of capital goodsthrived due to competition on a free market-Democracy(4)Government by the people with a majority ruleSupreme power invested in the peoplefree electionsabsence of class distinctions based on inheritance-Egalitarianism(2)human equality in social, economic, and political circumstancesadvocating removal of inequalities among citizens.-Population explosion and urbanization (3)major increase 1790-18301790: 200,000 (pop. in cities with 25,000 or more citizens)1830: over 1 million (pop. in cities with 25,000 or more citizens)0-500,000 residents in cities with at least 50,000 residentsMA: doubledPA: tripledNT: 5 times over-Commercial Boom (3)factories flourished1790-1807--exports grew from 20 mil -> 108 mil (17 years)--Colonial America: 7 Corp. -> 1800: over 500 corp.-Expansion of Social, Economic and Geographical Mobility (2)can change class through commercial activities and opportunities.westward expansion and start of mass immigrations.-Why is it called “Period of Transition”? (2)Social, Economic, Geographical stability to S.E.G. mobilityclose knit colonial lifestyle -> individualistic lifestyle-The Enlightenment (3, Visions of Man’s Nature (4))began in Europepeople in control of their own pathspeople not helpless sinners but rational thinking beingsVisions on Man’s Nature:--sensual--Utilitarian--Egoistic--rational--Sensualactions based on desire for pleasure and avoidance of pain-Utilitarianhaving the capacity to balance pain/pleasure to where we can take pain but the pleasure exceed the associating pain, which makes the pain worth it (thinking

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FSU CJC 3010 - Study guide

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