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1. Natural Religion:Emphasized Christianity’s “Reasonableness” or appealing to laws of reasonChristianity was “natural” because it was “rational”System of Transcendence – relationship between God and humansBehaviors within the state of nature2. American Enlightenment:Period when Deistic influences are introduced to Protestant Churches through natural religionMoral emphasis of Arminian theology prepared many for the moral emphasis of the Enlightenment DeismArchitecture symbolism emphasized initiation into the Enlightenment religion3. “Goddism”:God worked through the system he had created without interferenceInstructive metaphors:Grand architectFashioned a perfect structure and left it to its own devicesPopular metaphor for the Constitution was the “roof”Great GovernorGod of creation entered political lifeOverseer who did not intervene with the daily operations of the stateGreatest governor - who governed least because of the excellence of the perfect system in placeGreat ClockmakerEmphasis on design, machinery, and distanceClock – Height of technologyCompared the clock to themselves because he created this perfect thing – no interference needed – unless through providence4. Freemasonry:REL 2121 Midterm Study Guide Key Terms and Events  America /Religion - Not synonymous with United States. o American Religion :  Underscores unity Dominant cluster of organizations, ideas, & moral values that have characterized the US. • American is a religion – Common moral anchor among Americanso Pledge of Allegiance, Swearing on the Bible, etc. o Religion in America –  Recognizes diversity.  The distinct religions of the many peoples who have come to call the US their homeland.• Slaves – Syncretism  Reformation – o 1st Reformers were interested in reforming Christianity and not creating something new o Sacraments were obstacles to true communion and understanding. o Emphasized a gap between "almighty" God and "regenerate" (sinful) humanity. o Jesus demonstrated powerlessness of humanity to effect salvation and the necessity on an intermediary. o Seemingly minute theological squabbles generated profound differences. Sola scriptura :o Scripture alone o The Word was Jesus and the law of Jesus as delivered through the Bible o Removes the authority of church hierarchy that had been established through apostolic succession. Sacrament o A sign (person, place, object, or action) that is regarded as holy and contains sacred power o There are 7 sacraments:  Life Events: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Orders, Matrimony, Extreme Unction (Anointing the sick) Help through life: Penance and Eucharist Cosmology :o Pervasive means of conceiving of church, humans, and the natural world Church is a sign of God's presence  The Pope is the sign of the church o Central demonstration of sacramentalism was the personification of Jesus in human form.o Cosmogram – map of the cosmos that demonstrates the relation of the universe and its origins within.  Covenant : Promise/Pact of the chosen people and God, with the state, and with each other. o Pact or promise with God o Ecclesial (church) – “chosen” people and Godo Civil (governance) – Covenant with the state o Social implications- With one anotherREL 2121 Midterm Study Guide Salem Witch Trials - (<1692) o Betty Parris and Abigail Williams learn divination from Tituba (Parris's West Indian Slave)o They were guilty of practicing malefic witchcraft o Feb 29: first arrest warrants issues.  Dozens of people accused/arrested in the following months. o First Trial: June 2 - Bridget Bishop hanged o June 10. 19 Executed before the trials end on Oct 1692. Wonders :o Events signaling the presence of the supernatural (God/ Satan) o Any disruption to the normal order of things “Wonder Works” – Comets, hailstorms, “monster births,” sudden deaths, rainbows, dreams, visions, disease, etc. o Always demonstrates the will of God  Providence  Reinforce the Calvinist emphasis on God's sovereignty  "Wonder-working" was a persistent reminder of God's transcendence Provided a language/mental framework for interpreting and describing the worldo Spread: Word of mouth Printed media – pamphlets, almanacs, diaries, etc. ** culture of the time **  “City on a hill” – o John Winthrop’s sermon based upon the biblical verse  Jesus speaking to his listeners as we need to be a “city on a hill”o Be the ultimate example Providence :o Signs from God- Pleasure or displeasure of “Chosen People” Status of the covenanto Social Implications – neighborly surveillanceo “Most crucial framework” for understand the wonders of colonial New England American Revolution - 1776 - o 13 colonies wanted to break away from England o Philosophies of John Lock  Natural Rights of Humans – can not be taken away o Enlightenment influences this greatly Enlightenment - (early 1700s) – o Intellectual movement o Scientific methods and emphasis on rationalism also affected religion o Jonathon Edwards read widely in science and philosophy defended the revivals by using rationalist arguments derived from reading John Locke.REL 2121 Midterm Study Guide Deism- [Religious Liberalism] Influenced legislation of new republic; an independent philosophical and religious tradition moved beyond Protestant Christianity. o Non – Trinitarian: God is the only divine figureo Belief in an after life of future reward or punishment Based upon the actions, morality, and conduct of a person o Providence – God reveals himself through nature God facilitates by letting humans work on their own – he does not intervene Does NOT work through miracles or exceptions of the natural order of the universeo Five Facilities of Deism: (1) Natural Religion, (2) American Enlightenment, (3)“Goddism,” (4) Freemasonry, and (5) American Symbolism1. Natural Religion:o Emphasized Christianity’s “Reasonableness” or appealing to laws of reason o Christianity was “natural” because it was “rational”o System of Transcendence – relationship between God and humanso Behaviors within the state of nature2. American Enlightenment:o Period when Deistic influences are introduced to Protestant Churches through natural religiono Moral emphasis of Arminian theology prepared many for the moral emphasis of the Enlightenment

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FSU REL 2121 - Study Guide

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