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Europe Notes: Test OneGeneral Europe GeographyHuman and Physical Geography:Political, Economic, Cultural, Urban, Military, Historical, etc.European Union Flag: Beethoven’s 9th, Ode to Joy. (Not important to us but extremely important to them)Asia Minor used to be a part of Europe- it is now Turkey (the Greeks are fighting for the territory) Indo- Aryans then Asians in 1453 (Turkish)There are many manifestations of EuropeMiddle of the 1700s is when it changed to the current (modern) representation.Geography is a SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION (determined on cultural aspects) and social science. It is a PERCEPTION.Cultural Hearth:Place where human civilization began and grew.MesopotamiaIndo Gangiatic PlaneYellow River of North ChinaNileAfricaNorthern IndiaEurope was the last to develop so it didn’t have to civilize.Pangaea to Jurassic PeriodPacific Plate: Ring of FireVolcano: Mt. Etna in southern ItalyEarthquakes: Balkans Region: Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Turkey, Malta, ItalyEgyptian culture influenced Europe greatly.Europe is defined as a region only culturally.Europe is one for the most populated continents. It has ruled the world for the last 500 years. (1500-1950) It has ruled everywhere except Central China, the Ottoman Empire, and the Central Wasteland at some point in those last 500 years. They mainly left language as the heritage of their rule. In Asia and Africa the cities follow the European style. Canton was the segregated community where the white people live.China has ruled about 5 different times throughout history.1800s: Great Britain was the wealthiest country. 1870/1890: Germany replaces Great Britain as the leading economy.1872 Germany was unified. It became what China is today.Then becomes a debtor nation.French ruled, then Spanish, the Europe.End of WWIIUS had 75% of world GDP. They rebuild Europe. (Marshall Plan) and then proceed to rebuild Japan.Money value is spreadingUS: 2% others <10% growth ratesThis happens repeatedly throughout history.BRICS are the fastest growing economiesBrazil, Russia, India, and ChinaRussia is falling apart.Population is declining steadily (-750,000 per year)It lost territories when it split.Russians are not having children.Two very hard economy slumps.Also resulting in no childrenRussian economy is based off of natural resources: gas and oil.Exclusive access to the European market.They shut off Europe at one point, which resulted in Europe looking and finding other sources, which makes Russia unnecessary.European role in the world is changingHigher quality of lifeGuaranteed moneyHealth CarePension PlansUnemployment benefits for lifeHighway qualityHigh speed trainsSuperior government servicesAll were great but they are expensive. Not a good place for profit.Lack of creativity.No more drive for the “new”Economic expansion is downWealth is growing but other countries are faster.European WealthComes from the industrial sect. which is going down the tubes.Severe economic recessionWorld Systems TheoryWealth producing (Metropolis. Value added production- raw materials into something else to sell at a higher price. [Manufacturing] The difference is the value added.)PeripheryNo value added production. Dependent on the Metropolis.Semi- PeripheryThe middle groupProvides the labor.Wealth Producing (Metropolis) are typically all around the interstates (corridors).Centrality is importantNorth America, Western Europe, Eastern Asia are the economic poles around the world.Fastest growing economy: Mongolia (18% growth rate).China is largest consumer.Fastest growing economy almost always means that there was not one in the first place.Shatter belt:Countries breaking into smaller sections because there is nothing to pull them together.Examples: Caucuses, BalticsCentrifugal Force:Forces that cause people to separateCulture, language, race, economies, etc.Devolution:Slowly pulling awayExamples: Scotland from the United KingdomCentripetal Force:Unifying a regionNationalismUnited States90% of the forces could be either Centrifugal or CentripetalEvents that Defined Europe:Egyptian EmpiresGreek EmpiresRoman EmpiresGermanic InvasionsGermans separated by rivers.Migrations kill off the Roman Empire.Each of the different tribes end up as different countries.Constantine- 312Sets up different powerChristianity is set as a uniformed religionThe Great PlagueFleas and rats were the causeReached everyone. Half of all human beings died.Redefines EuropeFeudal system and social structure are created.Religion is jeopardizedViews changeChanges EVERYTHING.ParticularismEveryone for themselvesMost prominent in Germany 1630-1640Largest War Massacre (30 years War)Mercantilism- ColonialismReformationReformation 1571-158830 Years War (Particularism)Europe loses half of the population again.Anabaptist/Meninites/AmishCentralityGreat Kings of Europe, Spain, and FranceAmerica is a product of Europe before the 30 Years WarNO DICTATORSReligion is a centripetal forceJudaism was prominent many different places:Roman EmpireRussiaAsiaThere are 3 major religions in EuropeCatholicsLutheransOrthodoxVery few exceptionsChristianity Origins33ADChristianityNationalized by Constantine for the Roman Empire. (Forced his people into it)Has a sense of RegionalismBishopsLeaders that have churches spread out (diases).Four main bishops and then the leader bishop.Major differences of philosophyOriginalRomeAlexandriaAntiochConstantinopleJerusalemHave regular meetings323AD Christianity splits.Partly on the dogma.Bishops of south and east go their own way.Still expressed todayEthiopia and Egypt have their own popes.460AD Another splitArgument of BishopsConstantinople: All should be equalRome: Church>State and I am leader of both so therefore I am the head.West (Catholics) and East (Orthodox) Mediterranean Split.Goes a long way to determine physical geography for both sides.Numerous Orthodox ChurchesThe main one is located in IstanbulEvery nationality has a form of Orthodoxy; sometimes multipleHelps create Russian National Church1522: Another SplitWestern Europe100 years priorThe Dialectic: Yohan HussBurned at the stake in downtown Prague“Catholic Church is corrupt” All based on money and sex.Split into Catholicism (South and West) and Protestantism (North)Based of the Dialectic theoryNo absolute authorityThesis (Argument) then antithesis (counter argument) then synthesis(solution).You have a right to think and challenge existing authority.Partitioning of all of EuropeJohn Calvin: CalvinistSwitzerland split

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FSU GEA 4500 - Test 1

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