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HUN 3403Fall 2012Review for final exam, included all the chapters and student presentations after our second exam. 1. Adolescent body composition, including fat mass, lean mass and skeletal mass, changes during puberty (Ch. 14; pages 359)a. Puberty – time frame during which the body matures from child to adulti. Sexual Maturation Rating (SMR) for girls and boys = Tanner stages1. Stage 1: Pre-pubertal growth2. Stages 2-5: Occurrence of growtha. Females – menarche stage 43. Stage 5: Sexual Maturationb. Changes in pubertyi. Weight: Approx. 10-15 lbs/yrii. Body Comp: 1. Girls increase in fat mass2. Boys decrease in fat mass3. Skeletal Massa. By 18yrs. More than 90% of adult skeletal mass is formedb. Dependent on:i. Genetics, weight bearing exercise, smoking, alcohol, diet (calcium, phos., vit. D, protein)iii. Large variation in rate of development1. Males: “Late bloomers” – often feel inferior, more likely to turn to supplement for increased muscle and linear growth2. Females: See #2c. 50% of ideal body weight is gained in adolescenced. Females:i. Peak weight gain follows linear growth spurt by 3-6 months1. Avg of 12.5 years old  gain approx. 18.3 lbs2. Slows around time of menarche, but continues into late adolescence3. Peak accumulation of muscle mass occurs around or just after onset of mensesii. Lean body mass falls from 80% to 74%iii. Body fat increases from 16 to 27%iv. 44% increase in lean body mass and 120% increase in body fat during pubertyv. Gain approx. 2.5 lb of body fat mass each year – peak between ages 15 and 16e. Males:i. Peak weight gain, linear growth and muscle mass all coincide with each otherii. Weight gain  avg. of 20 lb per yeariii. Body fat decreases  approx. 12% by end of pubertyf. By age 18, about 90% of adult skeletal mass has been formed2. Early mature girls are more like to… (page 361)a. Females that mature early are more likely to adopt “grown-up behaviors” younger, such as smoking, drinking, and sexual activity3. Servings of vegetables consumption during adolescence (page 365)a. Males: 35%b. Females: 34%c. 30% consume less than one serving per day, with white potatoes making up half of the vegetables consumed.d. Fruit  almost two-thirds (62% of males; 57% of females) consume less than one serving per day.4. The influence factors of eating behaviors in adolescent (page 361)a. Peersb. Food availabilityc. Costd. Conveniencee. Body image5. Natural food sources of vitamin D (class and pages 370-371)a. Fatty fish and liverb. Milk, Fortified soy milk, fortified breakfast cereals6. Menopause: definition and common symptoms, iron needs before and after menopause (page 408 – slides)a. Menopause is the end of menstruation and a marking point for increased risk of CVD and other chronic conditions for womenb. Associated with an inc. in abdominal fat and accelerated loss in bone massc. Effects: Hot flashes, fatigue, sleep disturbances, memory lossd. Iron intake decreases from 18 to 8mg7. Differences among different types of vegetarian diets. (Page 363)Type of Diet Foods ExcludedSemi- or partial-vegetarian Red MeatLacto-ovo-vegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafoodLacto-vegetarian Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggsVegan (total vegetarian) Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy products (may excludehoney)Macrobiotic Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, dairy (fish may be included insome macrobiotic vegetarians)a.8. Know how to calculate energy expenditures with equations (Mifflin – pg 409; Harris – ppt.)a. Harris-Benedict Equationi. Males1. =66.5 + (13.75 x wt) + (5 x ht) – (6.8 x age)ii. Females1. = 655 + (9.6 x wt) + (1.8 x ht) – 4/7 x age)iii. Ht = cm; Wt = kgb. Mifflin-St. Jeor - more accuratei. Males 1. (10 x wt) + (6.25 x ht) – (5 x age) + 5ii. Females1. (10 x wt) + (6.25 x ht) – (5 x age) -161c. Factors (multiply on end of each equation)i. Injury1. 1.2 minor injury2. 1.35 skeletal trauma3. 1.44 elective surgery4. 2.1-2.5 severe thermal burnsii. Activity factors1. 1.2 sedentary or wt. maintenance2. 1.55 moderately active (3-5 d/wk)3. 1.725 very actived. EX: 34 yr. old male, H: 73 in (185cm); Wt: 180 lb (82kg), runs/cycles 5 d/wki. Harris:1. 66.5 + (13.75 x wt) + (5 x ht) – (6.8 x age)2. 66.6 + (13.75 x 82) + (5 x 185) – (6.8 x 34) = 1888 x 1.5 =2832ii. Mifflin1. (10 x wt) + (6.25 x ht) – (5 x age) + 52. (10 x 82) + (6.25 x 185) – (5 x 34) + 5 = 1811 x 1.5 = 27179. Understand and remember acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges a. Adultsi. Fat: 20-35%ii. Carb: 45-65%iii. Protein: 10-35%b. Adolescentsi. Fat: 25-35%ii. Carb: 45-65%iii. Protein: 10-30%10. Recommended dietary fiber for males and females (front of book)a. Infants: NDb. Childreni. 1-3: 19g/dayii. 4-8: 25 g/dayc. Preadolescents:i. Males: 31 g/dayii. Females: 26 g/dayd. Adolescents:i. Males: 31g/day (<14 years of age); 38g/day for othersii. Females: 26g/daye. Adults: i. Males: 38g/dayii. Females: 25g/day or 14g for every 1000 caloriesf. 51+i. Males: 30g/dayii. Females: 21 g/day11. Longevity depends on…. (page 455 and ppt.)a. 19% geneticsb. 10% access to high quality health carec. 20% environmental factorsd. 51% lifestylee. 86+ largest growing segment12. Life expectancy in the US (page 456)a. Life expectancy – average number of years of life remaining for persons in a population groupb. Life expectancy has increased in US and is expected to continue to increasec. US is ranked number 50 in longest life expectancy at birth with an average of age 7813. DETERMINE (page 465)a. Warning signs of poor nutritional healthi. Disease: any disease, illness, or chronic conditionii. Eating poorly: Eating too little, too much, or the same foods day after day, or not eating fruits, vegetables, and milk products dailyiii. Tooth loss/mouth pain: It is hard to eat well with missing, loose, or rotten teeth, or dentures that do not fit well or cause mouth soresiv. Economic hardship: having less or choosing to spend less than $41.90 (f) to $46.80 (m) weekly for groceriesv. Reduced social contact: Being with people has a positive effect on morale, well-being, and eatingvi. Multiple medicines: The more medicines you take, the more likely the chance for side effects such as change in taste, inc. or dec. appetite and thirstvii. Involuntary weight loss or gain: Losing or gaining a lot of weight involuntarily is not goodviii. Needs assistance in self-care: Older people who have trouble walking, shopping, and buying and cooking food are at risk for malnutritionix. Elder

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