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The Protestant ReformationAnticlericalismPluralismMartin LutherEdict of WormsUlrich ZwingliJohn CalvinPredestinationGenevan ConsistoryCouncil of TrentIgnatius LoyolaHuguenotsSt. Bartholomew’s Day MassacreEdict of NantesAnticlericalismOpposition to the catholic church (~1500s)Focused on three main problemsClerical immoralityClerical lack of knowledge (ignorance)Clerical pluralismPluralismPractice of holding more than 1 church position at a timeProblemsClergy wasn’t focusing on one thingThere wasn’t enough focus on their spiritual responsibilities for each officeSome people would pay cheap priests to do their jobsWhy did they do it?Provided members of the clergy with more moneyMartin Luther (1483-1546)Taught and focused on helping the poorHe was very well educatedVery piousStudied St. Paul’s writings and discovers a new understanding of the Bible and its teachingsBelieved “faith alone, grace alone and scripture alone” were the only things that connect you with God and they were more important than clerical thingsBelieved salvation comes from God’s grace aloneDisagreed with Indulgences (paper written by Pope you could buy to be forgiven of your sins)Led him to write 95 Thesis“Indulgences undermine the sacrament of penance”Scholarly debate with Eck around 1519Results in Luther moving farther away from the Catholic ChurchPrinting press allows him to write and publish pamphlets about his reformation ideasStates how clergy should actBy 1521, word had spread throughout Europe about Luther’s ideas and he was excommunicated from the churchEdict of Worms1521Issued by Charles V and the Pope saying Luther was an enemy of the state, says all of his teachings and writings cannot be publishedCulmination of Martin Luther and other secular authorityCaused more of Europe to desire to change churchesUlrich ZwingliMost important reformer (aside from Luther)Christian humanistWould go right through the testament A-ZBelieved human life relied on scriptureAttacks many problems with Catholic ChurchI.e. clerical celibacyEtc.In his reform in the German church he had strong support of government and city – called for a break from Rome and wanted to be called ProtestantsLuther and ZwingliHave many ideas in commonHow people can be savedSalvation comes from faith alone, not good works, so salvation relies on God rather than peopleWhere does the authority relyBible alone, not people’s teachingRejected 7 sacramentsBecause they were established by church hierarchy, not scripture itselfWhat is the churchSpiritual fellowship of all believers, not one established buildingWhat is the highest form of Christian lifeEvery person should serve God in their own wayMarriageDo allow divorceMoved it out of the church and into the hands of the stateDifferencesCommunionLuther – transubstantiation – body and blood coming together in the bread and wineZwingli – Christ is among the people in spirit but not in the actual bread and wineIconsLuther – iconoclast – doesn’t respect the use of imagery of worship of holy people other than JesusZwingli – doesn’t stray far from Catholic belief of iconoclasmThings which led to the spread of Protestant ideasPrinting press – allows them to print pamphletsLuther’s skill with languageHymnsStandardizes the German languageZwingli works closely with the city council in Germany for backing of the Protestant beliefsJohn Calvin (1509 – 1564)Had a religious experience in 1533, where God had chosen him to reform the church, becoming a ProtestantGeneva became his homeTheology – he believed everything is unimportant in God’s presence and humans don’t have free willAlso believe and created Predestination – the belief God has chosen who will be saved and who won’t be saved at the beginning of time and we have no control over what happens to usHis ideas were instilled in his followers centered in France the Huguenots – Calvin’s followers centered in FranceCreated the Genevan Consistory – consisted of religious and non-religious people who “looked after” everyone (surveillance state)People were condemned for dinking heavily, playing cards, dancing, absence from sermons, and criticized ministersModel of reformCouncil of Trent (1545 – 1563)Formed to reform the Catholic Church and reconcile with the Protestants (Lutherans and Calvinists were invited, but were not the main focus)Gave validity to the scriptures as well as church authorityReaffirmed the 7 sacraments and teachings on transubstantiationAttacked disciplinary matters like suppressing pluralism, simony, absence of clergyForbade the sale of indulgencesClerics had to give up concubinesBishops were given more authorityClergy had to be educatedMarriage had to be public in from of a priest or witnessDidn’t solve all of its goals but did lay down the foundation for the Catholic Church henceforthIgnacious LoyolaFounded the Society of JesuitsStrengthened Catholicism in Europe and spread it around the world through its followersWas a wounded vet who turned to God and wrote “Spiritual Exercises” (1548) and continued to get papal authority to hold this order to promote chastity, obedience, and spread of God (missionaries)St. Bartholomew’s Day MassacreAugust 23-26, 1572Huguenot wedding guests and Protestants everywhere were slaughtered by mobs, which was believed to be backed by Catherine De MediciThis wedding was planned to reconcile violence but backfiredEdict of NantesHenry of Nervier converted to Catholicism and sued the Edict of Nantes (1598) granting the freedom of religion in FranceMedieval Society & CultureThe Three EstatesGuild SystemSumptuary LawsThe Three EstatesAlso called the “Three Orders”Hierarchy that breaks up all of society in EuropeOrder of importanceClergyRichestPaid 0 taxes, but could gather taxes (“tithes”)NobilityHas tax breaksTop echelon of societyCurrently – descendants from noblesEveryone elseIncludes peasantsIncludes merchants (increasing middle class that starts to develop in Europe)Includes artisansThis order is a point of contention within societyGuild SystemBeginning of the 12th century (1100)Set quality standards for their productRegulated training period for employeesGuilds of shoemakers, blacksmiths, etc.Forbade nonmembers of their guild to practice their craftStarts a monopolyProcess of the guildApprentice4-7 years as an apprenticeBound by a contractJourneymanWorking in the shop of the master artisanWorking under direct instruction of masterIn

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