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UNIT I Lecture 1 – Organismal Diversity· Depict the importance of organismal diversity graphically and in words- Having more species leads to greater stability in the face of climaticfluctuation - Studies lead to new technologies, drugs, foods etc. - Biomimicry: using structures and ideas from nature· Visualize diversity estimates in multiple ways - Around 2 million species described - We may never know how many species there are because of extinction Lecture 2 – Taxonomy· List at least 2-3 questions to ask that might help you identify ordifferentiate species - Physical features- Habitat - Diet · Apply hierarchical classification units from kingdom to species if given agroup of organisms- Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species · Correctly punctuate scientific names- The first word is the Genus and it’s capitalized and the second word is thespecific epithet in lower case (both in italics or separately underlined) · List reasons that names are important- Communicate across all languages - Some species don’t have common names · Be able to access resources for taxonomists - Field tools, specimen collections, scientific illustrations Lecture 3 – Evolution· List the conditions necessary for evolution to occur- Anything that causes a change in allele frequency ● Mutation● Natural selection ● Gene flow● Genetic drift● Non-random mating - Required for natural selection: ● Phenotypic variation in population● Variation was heritable ● Variation influenced the reproductive success of individuals · If given an example of change over time at any scale (allele, protein,physical trait, behavior) recognize that it is evolution· Compare and contrast the definitions and evolutionary significance ofbeneficial, harmful, and neutral mutations; · Distinguish evolution from natural selection- Natural selection is one mechanism of evolution, evolution is the change inalleles over time· If given an example of evolutionary change distinguish whether themechanism is genetic drift vs. natural selection- Genetic Drift: allele frequency change due to stochastic random events,some individuals surviving and reproducing randomly (much morepronounced in small populations Lectures 4&5 – Phylogenetics· Interpret relationships among taxa as visualized on a phylogenetic tree:start at individual level and work up to hierarchical clusters.· Identify characters as homoplasious or homologous.- Homologous: traits that are evolved from a common ancestor- Homoplasious: traits that aren’t inherited from a common ancestor(independently) · Identify clades as monophyletic.· If given a character matrix draw the corresponding phylogenetic tree.· Use correct terminology to discuss different parts of the trees or treeinference- Sister taxa (taxon) share the same base of divergence Lectures 6&7 – Viruses, Bacteria and Archaea· Describe why viruses are not considered to be alive- Can’t reproduce without a host- Cannot self-divide- They don’t need to consume energy to survive· Describe the similarities and differences among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic cells· Describe the evidence that links Archaea to Eukarya.Al- Loss of peptidoglycan- New methods for DNA packing and replication, repair and translation (compared to bacteria) - New enzymes (compared to bacteria) - DNA homology of multiple other genes · Discuss diversity of “life styles” and human impacts of Viruses, Bacteria and Archaea- Archaean can live in extreme conditions and bacteria live many different lifestyles (heterotrophic and autotrophic depending on the species) Lecture 8 – Major Clades I· Explain the endosymbiotic hypothesis and origin of the eukaryotes- A “pre-eukaryote” engulfed a bacterium capable of doing aerobics respiration, producing much more ATP per unit of food intake · List at least one synapomorphy and give examples of the major clades Amoebozoa, Opisthokonta, Excavata Lecture 9 – Major Clades II· List at least one synapomorphy and give examples of the major clades Archaeplastida, Rhizaria, Alveolata and Stramenopila· Describe the morphological and evolutionary diversity among the organisms called “algae”· Explain the origins of the primary and secondary plastids- Primary: cyanobacteria- Secondary: red

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