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BIO 203 1st Edition Lecture 2 Outline of Last Lecture II. Why is diversity important?III. BiomimicryOutline of Current Lecture II. Questions to ask to identify speciesIII. Taxonomya. Historyb. Bionomial nomenclaturec. Basic Linnean Ranksd. Nomenclature below species levelIV. IdentificationCurrent LectureIV. Questions to ask to identify speciesa. How does it get energy?b. How does it get rid of wastes?c. How does it support itself?d. How does it reproduce?e. What does it look like?f. Where does it live?V. Taxonomy: Naming (nomenclature), classification, and identification of speciesa. Historyi. When taxonomy started, the idea that organisms changed over time was not prevalentii. Folk taxonomy – cultural system of naming organismsiii. European exploration of 15-18th centuries increased the number of specimens from around the planetiv. Early classification – Can I eat this? (Shennong)v. Aristotle – Ancient Greeks called organisms either plants or animalsvi. Romans – Grouped plants and animals into more refined groups; these became known as generavii. Genera described using a single Latin word, but species names were polynomialb. Biological NomenclatureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. Polynomial system of naming organisms prior to Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum (The Species of Plants) ii. Modern system of naming things began with Linnaeus who wanted to name and describe all known kinds of organismsiii. A scientific name of an animal consists of two words (binomial)iv. The first word is the genus and is capitalized; the second is the specific epithet and is in lower case. The whole thing is capitalized (ex: Enallagma signatum)c. Basic Linnaean Ranksi. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (Do Kids Play Catch Over Farmer Greg’s Shed?)d. Nomenclature Below Species Leveli. Members of a species may be grouped into subspecies, varieties, or formsii. Ex: Humans are Homo sapiens sapiensVI. Identificationa. We usually identify organisms using aspects of their morphology & anatomyb. Tools of the ID trade:i. Rulerii. Hand lensiii. Dissecting scopeiv. Field notebookv. Specimen collection if needed for lab IDvi. Keys for IDc. Scientific Illustration – shows an idealized organism; drawings need to be accurate and in the correct scaled. Identification Resources – field guides, ID manuals, online; usually specific group of


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