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Exam 2 Study GuideTopic 5Theme 1- Power, Sport and Masculinities - De-naturalizing the body and sex/gender differences o De-naturalizing- look at the body and understand how gender differences are created and perpetuated o The active body is not a wholly natural entity. It is a physical and social construction.  Body shape, meanings, size, practices, style, identities and images all are influenced by society. - Social construction of the individualo Ideological formations, institutional structures, cultural practices and cultural texts form out experiences, identities and bodies. - Sex- system of classification determined by biological structure and function. o Sex is a biological continuum. - Gender- system of culturally determined roles, expectations, and identities associated with the two sex types. o There is nothing natural about gender differences. They are a learned behavior. - Gender as corporeal performanceo Men are taught to occupy space while women are taught to take up little space- Butler- there is no gender identity behind the expression of gender; identity is performativity constituted by the very expressions that are said to be its results”.o There is no innate expression of gender. Everything we do that are normal masculine/feminine activities we are reproducing said norms. - Video Clip 1: Judith Butler on Gendero Gender is preformative Preformative- creates effects Gender is a phenomenon, we play into it and are affected by it.  No one is a gender from the start. We become our “correct” gender by the social constructs around us. o Gender is culturally formed and we are policed into these gendersTheme 2- Gender: The Gender Binary and Patriarchy- Gender: A cultural binaryo Binary: There are two set genders that everyone fits in to.  Traditional gender binary:- Male:o Leadero Aggressiveo Powerfulo Strongo Calmo Pragmatico Subjecto Superior- Female:o Followero Passiveo Powerlesso Weako Emotionalo Romantico Objecto Inferior- These create a hierarchy o Creates a patriarchy- Patriarchyo A system of unequal gender roles, identities and experiences, which privilege the position of men.  Men hold the leadership positions. o Where does this come from? Males gained their social power and dominance through their relative physical strength, aggression and violence. Theme 3- Sport and Preformative Gender Difference- More than any other social institution, sport plays a central role in the constitution and advancement of our gendered being. - Sport is both gendered and gendering. o Organized sport is considered to be male oriented, thus normalizing and advancing “male” attributes. - Sport at a young age shows that there is little difference between male and female performance. o Once you hit around 11, ideologies, institutions, practices, and texts change the way that males and females perform and are expected to perform. - Ideological assumptions:o Women are physically inferior to meno Men are more suited to excelling in sporting practiceso Sport is predominantly male preserve where men are able to go be men and women areinfiltrating that space. - Gender Binary is reflected in sportso Through sport the active and aggressive body is tied to the male identity o Traditional Male sports: Football Hockey Basketball Boxing  Baseballo Traditional Female Sports: Volleyball Tennis Gymnastic Swimming Softballo Which are more popularly televised? Theme 4- The hyper-masculine center and performance of American sport culture- Hyper-masculine-embellished form of masculinity - Masculinity is understood in relation to physicality:o Sporting prowesso Physical aggressiono Sexual conquest- Sport is a patriarchal institution- Messnero Gendered institutional center of American sport The big 5 American sports- baseball, hockey, boxing, basketball and football are highly masculine are the highest publicized/enjoyed- Peripheral sports are not aggressive:o Gymnasticso Goldingo Tennis- Hyper-masculine sport performances:o Physical strength and staminao Physical toughness and braveryo Capacity for physical violenceo Assumed heterosexualityo Unemotional pragmatism  No real emotional attachment to hurting someone on the field because its “part of the game”- Messner- triad of violenceo Violence against other athleteso Violence against themselves  Normalization of playing through an injury Clip 2- Aussie team going to “smash up” the other team. o Violence against outsiders - Learned performance of masculinity- if you are not masculine enough you could be socially rejectedo Clip 3- British TV show showing that men can’t be accepted without being masculine-0watching soccer, drinking beer, etc. Theme 5- The Sporting Performance of Hegemonic Masculinities- Judith Butler- fender is a performance on and through the body, constructed and displayed through our bodily dress, posture and structure. - Sport is hyper-masculineo Physical strength and staminao Capacity for physical violenceo Assumed/compulsory heterosexualityo Physical toughness and braveryo Unemotional pragmatism - Hegemonic Masculinityo The commonly accepted and seemingly natural ideals of male form and male function.  What it means to be a man. o Dominant way to look at masculinity - Clip 4:o “Men can take anything, except the taste of Diet Cola”o They are forced to show masculinity- in this case being repeatedly injured, only to say, “I’m good!” - Mosaic Masculinity o The process by which men negotiate masculinity o The way men are constantly working with and against the idea of masculinity to create their own. Theme 6- Expressions of Sporting Hegemonic Masculinities- Clip 5- MTV Ryan Harris- football player. Tells about how he constructs his own masculine physicality- i.e. disciplining and modifying his body for performance. - Clip 6- Amateur body builders, modifying bodies for function instead of performance. What the male physic should look like. - Socio-pyscho-physiological problemso Reverse anorexia- men seek out highly masculine bodies and in the process they are hurting themselves. - Exercising Masculinities- the corporate body- fit and healthy bodies have come to play an increasing role in the informal expression of masculinity for the professional male. - Why men want muscles?o They are literally the embodiment of social power, authority and control.  The embodied expression of hegemonic masculinity.  Expression of the norm masculine

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FSU SPM 4012 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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