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The four subfields of Anthropology are: Cultural, Linguistic, Physical, and Archeology.Enculturation is the lifetime accumulation of culture.Ethnocentrism is a belief that one culture is better than others.Syncretism is the merging of two or more styles to create a distinctly new style.Two functions of political music are to protest or criticize social dysfunction and to affirm individual and collective identity.The Portuguese colonized Brazil.Two major exports from Brazil were brazilwood and sugar.Many of the native inhabitants of Brazil died from the introduction of new diseases or were forced to work on the plantations. They were also used for their information of the land and its crops. Women were often used as mistresses.There are more slaves sent to Brazil between the 16th and 19th century than anywhere else, including theUS. The total number of slaves brought to Brazil during European settlement was 3.5 million. Salvador, Bahia with its large population was once the capital of Brazil and still the largest population center for those of African descent in Brazil. Slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1888.Prior to the abolition of slavery, people who escaped from being held in bondage often lived in Quilombos, communities in the hills surrounding the plantations.African music is often polyrhythmic.Candomblé is a religion that combines African and European beliefs and includes the musical styles of Africa, specifically the umbigada and batuque. In Candomblé, there is a belief in Orixas with Catholic saints as counterparts. This religion becomes a foundation of many musical styles in Brazil.Capoeira is derived from African dance and music traditions and is a martial arts form during slavery in Brazil. In modern times, it is an athletic dance form.Favelas are slums, also known as shantytowns.Early Samba originated in Brazil’s favelas. Favela Samba represented impoverishment and living conditions for former slaves as well as black culture and heritage in Brazil.Carnival Samba is a nationwide answer to Favela Samba, making it more accessible to the wealthier classes. Brazil’s leader, Getulio Vargas uses government propaganda to make Samba mainstream by promoting schools that compete with each other to win an award. This Samba begins to represent government objectives. These schools use elegant costumes in their performances. They are often controlled by the mafia and the government.Bossa Nova comes about as an answer to Carnival Samba, since artists want greater control of their forms of expression. Bossa Nova evolves to incorporate international sounds, such as Jazz and representsa new form of modernity and professionalism in Brazil.Bossa Nova has a slower tempo than Samba.Bossa Nova utilizes percussive acoustic instrumentation and conversational lyrics.Bossa Nova can be considered syncretic, with polyrhythmic patterns (from African musical heritage) and dissonant harmonies (from Western musical styles).In the 1960s, Bossa Nova is considered too soft by many artists. These artists form an organization called MPB or Musica Popular Brasiliera.MPB comes about in Brazil as an organized assemblage of many musicians from both contemporary and historical musical backgrounds.MPB is divided between those who wish to remain true to Brazil’s traditional musical heritage and those who want to use modern electrified instruments. This division between contemporary sounds and traditional sounds ultimately produces a new style of music.Tropicalia originates from artists from the MPB movement who want to incorporate international styles including electrified instruments.Tropicalia comes about in the late 1960s when Brazil is in government turmoil. Brazil’s presidential government is overthrown by a military dictatorship. Music was subject to more intense government control than even in Vargas’ time and Samba. Musicians were scrutinized and even arrested for music that could be interpreted as anti-government. But Tropicalia musicians will not easily back down, recognizing that music is being used internationally to speak out against war and government indiscretions.Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, and Baden Powell are the key founders of MPB and later Tropicalia. Gil andVeloso are arrested and exiled to Europe for four years during the military overthrow of Brazil. Both later return to Brazil to continue pursuing music. Gil becomes a member of Brazil’s new government in the late 1980s. In the 1990s, Rock became a popular form of music among primarily young middle-class Brazilians. It adopted foreign styles and the lyrics were often in English.In modern times, an answer to Rock and democratic changes in government that have allowed greater freedom of expression, Axé incorporates Brazil’s religious heritage and musical styles including Favela Samba, Carnival Samba, Tropicalia, Rock, and

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OSU ANTH 210 - Anthropology

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