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Test Review - Hawaii1. There will be a short answer (5 pt) question on this:The question will state: “This is a traditional Hawaiian instrument. What is this instrument called?Describe in detail how it is made, how it is played, how it sounds, and its musical purpose. Wherewas this instrument seen in class being played recently?”A five point answer to this question should look something like:This is the ipu or ipu-hula. It is a drumlike instrument made by joining two pear-shaped gourds of large size. It is put together to form a figure 8 shape with an opening made in upper end of smaller gourd for sound to exit. It is held so that the smaller gourd is on top of the larger gourd when played. The base of it can be struck against to the ground while the player holds it, or it can be struck with force by the hand. Its tone is of low intensity. Its purpose is that it was used to mark time and emphasize rhythm. We saw this instrument being played at the 2014 Merrie Monarch festival in the men’s hula which was accompanied by kumu hula La’akea Perry’s mele (see number 15 of the test review to watch this video clip).2. Five points will also go to the diagramming of the traditional Hawaiian social structure prior to American arrival.Hawaiian names of each social level will be given to you. You will have the Hawaiian terms for the test, but then you must diagram them in order. I will want you to draw something like the triangle below and fill it in as I have done, translate the terms to what they mean to us in English:Ali’i nui (ruling chief)Ali’i (nobles)Kahuna (priests)Konohiki (land stewards)Maka’ainana (commoners)3. Ten points will be given for labeling the following instruments (terms will be given, some will be easy to remember, but you will need to label each correctly): Slack key guitar Ukelele Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, with Japanese heritage, this is Jake Shimabakuro, a virtuoso in ukulele: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_gJJ3aDif5A If you want to have your socks knocked off, check out this ukulele lesson by Jake, who was discovered and made a legend by his early You Tube videos. He is the top recognized Ukulele player today. Go to the 5 minute mark and play on from there to be blown away.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_at_nglL3M Uli uliOhe Hano Ihu (Hawaiian nose flute)Hawaiian lap steelHere’s Bobby Ingano playing Sleepwalk on lap steel guitar: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdTa9MzgF6s Puniu (coconut knee drum)If you’re interested in how this drum is made, here is a link: http://www.primitiveways.com/puniu_continued.htmlPahu Papa hehiThe rejuvenation of this ancient instrument and Hawaiian musical tradition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hl0xone6zTwKala’ auIpu hokiokio (gourd nose whistle)The final 20 points of this test will be on multiple choice questions.4. Hawaiians are thought to have arrived from Tahiti or from other Polynesian islands settled prior to Hawaii’s initial settlement. Polynesia literally means “many islands” and this region includes native peoples from Hawaii, Tahiti, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, New Zealand, and Easter Island. Hawaiians are the only ones in this group living north of the equatorial line.5. The earliest of Hawaiian history is recorded in what we call Oral traditions. 6. The Kukui nut tree is Hawaii’s state tree, and its nut and kernels are used for shampoos, fuel for lighting, dyes, as a play toy – a top, spicing - Inamona, and as modern necklaces. Historically, the kukui nut necklace was reserved for nobles to wear only. 7. Hawaiians had a strong trade network among the islands and even with distant nations who recognized them as their own sovereignty well before Europeans and Americans arrived there. 8. In the late 1700s, firearms became available to Hawaiians as a result of Captain Cook’s visit there, and following that, they were the major trade commodity coming into the islands.9. King Kamehameha I united the Hawaiian Islands under one ruler with his army of 15,000 soldiers. He had strong relations with the other islands, and his army was armed with guns, though Kamehameha had strong mana and peacefully united the islands.10. Sandalwood was a main trade commodity often exchanged with China for the making of Chinese fans.11. Hawaiians judged their king’s strength on the basis of their mana and their ability to retain that mana. Mana can be represented by actual bodily stature and size. A larger-bodied ruler would reasonably have more mana.12. Nobles were able to become chiefs dependent on their status in hunting, community, and sometimes war. Chiefdom was not inherited, but rather earned, and this was attributed to the amount of mana one had and his ability to maintain that mana without it “abandoning him.”13. Chanting or mele was often used in ceremonies and to recite genealogies, including the king’s geneology. King Kalakau (also known as the Merrie Monarch) restored this traditionduring his reign.14. Mele accompanies hula and hula is a dance technique where hand and body movements tell a story.15. A master hula teacher and mele chanter is called a kumu hula. This mele is performed by La’akea Perry and with hula by the halau Ke Kai O Kahiki. (This is O’Brian Eselu’s former halau and frequent all-around champions of the Merrie Monarch festival.)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlv-KT8KQ6o16. The Kukaniloko Birthstones location is where the nobles gave birth to their children with much public ceremony surrounding the event. The preservation of these stones as a historic landmark and the knowledge of public ceremonial traditions surrounding birth, lends to the importance of retaining genealogical records through oral and musical traditions in Hawaii.17. During the 1820s, many Hawaiians who were suffering from disease were promised everlasting life by the Calvinists, so they converted to Christianity. Queen Ka’ahumanu, who became the ruler after her husband’s (King Kamehameha’s) death in 1819, allowed this transition from culturally significant religions to European religions as she abolished the taboo and indigenous rituals, and announced Christianity as the official religion. She also adopted western dress styles and encouraged missionary activities. During her rule, in line with western policies on land ownership, land rights were granted to individuals (missionaries who now occupied priest and sometimes nobility positions). These people could sell their properties to foreign

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OSU ANTH 210 - Study Guide

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