OSU ANTH 210 - Brazil Slides (11 pages)

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Brazil Slides



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Brazil Slides

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Pages:
11
School:
Oregon State University
Course:
Anth 210 - Comparative Cultures
Comparative Cultures Documents
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2 25 15 Brazil Anthropology 210 Discovery of Brazil In 1500 Pedro Cabral lands in Brazil 1 2 3 4 Where was he from Was Brazil where he intended to land Where was he heading How did he end up in Brazil Map of Brazil Spain and Portugal Why were Portugal and Spain behind Located on the fringes or margins of most trading networks Cut o from eastern trading networks FighNng internally with the Moors How did they recover With gold from West Africa Making direct route to India 1 2 25 15 Follow the Money How did Europe come to be the dominant power in the world during this Nme Gold from New World 1561 1580 85 of silver from Americas Controlled ow of wealth CompeNNon due to trade in Brazilwood caused Portugal King to colonize Brazil Indians of Brazil What happened to the naNves Missionaries tried to convert to ChrisNanity Gathered naNves into village seZlements Taught European trades Taught how to read and write Enslaved Women used as concubines mistresses or wives Portuguese in Brazil What did the Portuguese gain from the naNves Women How to hunt and sh How to build canoes Prepare manioc Build open houses Use of hammocks Use of tobacco Source of labor 2 2 25 15 Portuguese sugar plantations 1600 s exporNng 30 000 tons of sugar a year 2 million pounds money a year More wealth than all of Britain s exports combined Cost was low Supplanted Mediterranean supply Luxury item at the Nme What was one of the results of the success of sugar plantaNons in Brazil Slave Trade How many Africans were brought to Brazil and used as slaves When was slavery abolished How did Africans survive slavery Salvador Bahia Highest number of African Brazilians Where can we see the in uences of Africa What elements of Brazilian music are thought to have originated in Africa 3 2 25 15 3 Forms of Music in Our Study 1 Candombl music that accompanies African Brazilian religious rituals 2 3 Songs in African Languages kept deiNes alive Capoeira music with dance marNal arts form Most common in Bahia various languages from Central Africa uses the berimbau Samba music and dance typically associated with Brazil s Carnival celebraNon Candombl What is Candombl SyncreNc religion Took elements from ChrisNanity and blended it with African religious beliefs What are Orixas O ree sha African deiNes SyncreNc God of iron and war Ogun is understood to be St Anthony Orixas 4 2 25 15 African Gods Orixa Yoruba god typically has his or her own special day of the week food symbols and songs Adherents develop special relaNonship with one god or saint Become possessed by god who is summoned by music Film Ile Aiye The House of Life A Film by David Byrne 1989 Director David Byrne Ra ng NR Not Rated IL AIY explores the ways in which Candombl has in uenced the daily life and culture of the people of Brazil in music art religion theater food dance poetry and more Candombl Decentralized No overarching hierarchy Members belong to a house of worship Di ers from neighborhood to neighborhood By the early 1980 s there were over 900 Candombl houses in Salvador Bahia 5 2 25 15 Candombl Appeals to mainly African Brazilians Incorporates African and Western beliefs Priests chant in African language e g Yoruba Believers bound together by rituals Believers adopt special god who possess them watches over them Music is vital to rituals Provides solidarity and sense of belonging Brazil Anthropology 210 Capoeria Originally used as a way to defend themselves Quilombos Palmares EsNmated 20 000 residents Aner slavery was abolished capoeria became more of compeNNve sport Master teaches apprenNce 6 2 25 15 Capoeria Berimbau Musicians dancers work together On lookers onen sing short verses to accompany the acNon Samba Originated with the end of slavery 1888 and the end of the co ee boom Associated with Rio de Janeiro Expression of black shantytowns known as favelas Salvador Bahia Rio de Janeiro Group Solidarity and IdenNty Samba Dance What are the roots of Samba dance and rhythms Descendant of African circle dance batuque Use of African belly bumping dance umbigada 7 2 25 15 Samba Music and Dance Two kinds of Samba 1 2 Favela shantytown based among urban poor of Rio de Janeiro Carnival co opted form organized and was run by criminal organizaNons working for elite and government Favela Samba Favela Samba Lyrics re ect shantytown favela life and concerns More likely to protest oppression class and racial inequaliNes Afro Brazilian samba acts as an a rmaNon of black Brazilian culture A basis of idenNty and group solidarity Carnival Samba Carnival Samba LaNn Catholic celebraNon that marks the beginning of Lent CooptaNon of samba by carnival fesNviNes Samba Schools controlled by criminal organizaNons and government control carnival promote costumes marching elite control mindless but costly entertainment 8 2 25 15 1930 1954 Get lio Vargas Takes control in 1930 Moves toward an authoritarian posiNon Right wing dictatorship similar to fascist models Centralized power state intervenNon in economy IndustrializaNon seen as criNcal and needed to be supported by state incenNves tari protecNon credits direct investments Early Samba Samba lyrics dealt with 2 things 1 Malandro the Urban Hustler Mocked middle class values Heroic dominant stance against ruling values 2 Women and love a airs Co opted Samba Responses to governmental version of Samba 1 2 Produce what the government wanted to hear and Use of character who was a sucker Otario 9 2 25 15 Post Samba Bossa nova some argue that Brazilian musicians had more control over the type of music they produced while others accuse it of making people complacent Post Samba Musica Popular Brasileira MPB Tropicalia Post MPB Military regime ends mid 1980s Rise in rap groups Sao Paulo more hardcore Rio more relaxed hip hop funk 1990s Development of Brazilian hard rock IdenN es with youth of the naNon 10 2 25 15 Brazil This ends our lectures on Brazil During our next class meeNng you will be taking the rst test which covers the IntroducNon and Brazil chapters and class materials The test will consist of mulNple choice answer quesNons and short answer quesNons Aner taking the test start reading the chapter on Jamaica our next unit of study 11


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