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BUAD309 FINAL EXAM MAY 15, 2014Jaimie Lafferty CHAPTERS 13, 14, 15, 16, 18org’n = organizationChapter 13: Power and Politics I. A Definition of PowerA. Power- A’s ability to influence B ‘s behavior so B acts according to A’s wishes 1. Functions of Power:a. Dependence: the greater B is dependent on A, the greater A has power in the relationship; when A controls the alternatives that B desires, A has power over B; the higher the limitations for thealternatives desired by B that A has, the more likely A is to havepower over B. 2. Studies: a. Higher status = better liars:-Research suggesting that people who have more authority and status are better liars because they are more confident with their position than those of lower status jobs. Ex. being told to steal $100 bill and convince researcher that they did not steal it. Those given higher status = better liarsb. Powerful managers more likely to respond to poor performers by confronting directly or encouraging further trainingB. Contrasting Leadership and Power1. Difference between leadership and power: Leadership = the leader and those being led have to agree on goals II (a). Bases of Power: 5 Types of PowerA. Formal Power1. Coercive Powera. Based on fear of negative results from failing to comply2. Reward Powera. Opposite of coercive power b. Compliance because of positive benefits 3. Legitimate Powera. Most common access to one or more power baseb. Represents formal authority to control & use organizational resources based on structural position in the organizationB. Personal Power1. Expert Power – power as result of expertiseex. computer specialists, tax accountants, economists 2. Referent Power – identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits ex. Lebron James and Tom Brady C. Which Bases of Power are Most Effective?1. Personal Sources of Power (Expert, Referent)2. (Coercive power related negatively to employee satisfaction & commitment)D. Power and Perceived Justice1. People with higher positions of power more likely to be blamed than those in lower positions of powerJaimie LaffertyII (b). Dependence: The Key to PowerA. The General Dependence Postulate:1. The greater B’s dependence on A, the more power A has over BB. What Creates Dependence? 1. Importance a. Avoid uncertainty2. Scarcity Ex. Ferruccio Lamborghini – unique cars 3. Nonsubstitutability a. Fewer substitutes, the more power control over the resourceIII. Power Tactics A. Power tactics: ways individuals translate power bases into specific actions 1. Legitimacy a. Relying on position of authority or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules 2. Rational Persuasiona. Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable 3. Inspirational appealsa. Developing emotional commitment by appealing to target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations4. Consultation a. Increasing target’s support by involving him or her in deciding howyou will accomplish your plan 5. Exchange a. Increasing target with benefits or favors in exchange following a request6. Personal Appealsa. Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty 7. Ingratiationa. Using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to a request 8. Pressurea. Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats 9. Coalitions a. Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agreeB. Political Skill1. Ability to influence others in a way that advances one’s objectives IV. Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the WorkplaceA. Sexual Harassment1. Unwanted activity of sexual nature 2. Affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile workenvironment 3. India, followed by China and Saudi Arabia- highest reports of thisJaimie LaffertyV. Politics: Power in ActionA. Definitions of Organizational Politics 1. Political Behavior:Activities that influence, or try to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization B. The Reality of Politics 1. Many managers think use of political behavior is ethical and necessary a. But must not harm others 2. Politickinga. Most decisions made ambiguously: b. Facts open to interpretation – people can use influence to support own goals and interests c. More likely to come about in organization when:i. Resources are declining ii. Pattern of resources changingiii. Opportunity for promotionsVI. Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior A. Factors Contributing to Political Behavior (What will increase political behavior?)1. Individual Factors (Ex. 13-3)a. High self-monitors i. Sensitive to social cues, high levels of social conformity, moreskilled in political behavior than low self-monitor b. Internal locus of controli. Believe they can control their environment c. High Mach personalityi. Will to manipulate and desire for power- use politics for self-advancement d. Organizational investmenti. The more perceived future benefits, the more to lose if forcedout- more likely to use illegitimate means e. Perceived job alternatives i. Prominent reputation, influential outside contacts, more risky illegitimate political actions f. Expectations of successi. High expectations from highly experienced individuals aswell as from naïve individuals who misjudge their chances 2. Organizational Factors (Ex. 13-3)a. Reallocation of resourcesb. Promotion opportunitiesc. Low trust d. Role ambiguitye. Unclear performance evaluation systemf. Zero-sum reward practicesh. Democratic decision-making i. High performance pressuresJaimie Laffertyj. Self-serving senior managers B. How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?1. Outcomes negative for those with modest political skill or those not willingto play the politics game 2. Organizational politics may threaten employees: (Ex. 13-4)a. Decreased job satisfactionb. Increased anxiety and stressc. Increased turnoverd. Reduced performance 3. Defensive Behaviorsa. Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change b. Often related to negative feels towards job and work environmentEx. 13-5 Avoiding Action: Avoiding Blame: Avoiding Change:Overconforming Buffing PreventionBuck passing Playing safe Self-protectionPlaying dumb JustifyingStretching ScapegoatingStalling Misrepresenting VII. Impression Management A. Impression Management (IM):Process by which individuals try to control impressions others form of them 1. Impression Management Techniques a.

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