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Jaimie Lafferty CHAPTERS 13 14 15 16 18 BUAD309 FINAL EXAM MAY 15 2014 org n organization Chapter 13 Power and Politics I A Definition of Power A Power A s ability to influence B s behavior so B acts according to A s wishes 1 Functions of Power a Dependence the greater B is dependent on A the greater A has power in the relationship when A controls the alternatives desires A has power over B the higher the limitations for the that B alternatives desired by B that A has the more likely A is to have power over B 2 Studies a Higher status better liars Research suggesting that people who have more authority and status are better liars because they are more confident with their position than those of lower status jobs Ex being told to steal 100 bill and convince researcher that they did not steal it Those given higher status better liars b Powerful managers more likely to respond to poor performers by confronting directly or encouraging further training B Contrasting Leadership and Power 1 Difference between leadership and power Leadership the leader and those being led have to agree on goals II a Bases of Power 5 Types of Power A Formal Power 1 Coercive Power a Based on fear of negative results from failing to comply 2 Reward Power a Opposite of coercive power b Compliance because of positive benefits 3 Legitimate Power a Most common access to one or more power base b Represents formal authority to control use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization B Personal Power 1 Expert Power power as result of expertise ex computer specialists tax accountants economists 2 Referent Power identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits ex Lebron James and Tom Brady C Which Bases of Power are Most Effective 1 Personal Sources of Power Expert Referent 2 Coercive power related negatively to employee satisfaction commitment D Power and Perceived Justice 1 People with higher positions of power more likely to be blamed than those in lower positions of power Jaimie Lafferty II b Dependence The Key to Power A The General Dependence Postulate 1 The greater B s dependence on A the more power A has over B B What Creates Dependence 1 Importance a Avoid uncertainty 2 Scarcity Ex Ferruccio Lamborghini unique cars 3 Nonsubstitutability a Fewer substitutes the more power control over the resource III Power Tactics 1 Legitimacy A Power tactics ways individuals translate power bases into specific actions a Relying on position of authority or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules a Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a 2 Rational Persuasion request is reasonable 3 Inspirational appeals a Developing emotional commitment by appealing to target s values needs hopes and aspirations a Increasing target s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan 4 Consultation 5 Exchange 6 Personal Appeals 7 Ingratiation 8 Pressure 9 Coalitions a Increasing target with benefits or favors in exchange following a request a Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty a Using flattery praise or friendly behavior prior to a request a Using warnings repeated demands and threats a Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree B Political Skill 1 Ability to influence others in a way that advances one s objectives IV Sexual Harassment Unequal Power in the Workplace A Sexual Harassment 1 Unwanted activity of sexual nature 2 Affects an individual s employment and creates a hostile work environment 3 India followed by China and Saudi Arabia highest reports of this Jaimie Lafferty V Politics Power in Action A Definitions of Organizational Politics 1 Political Behavior Activities that influence or try to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization B The Reality of Politics 1 Many managers think use of political behavior is ethical and necessary a But must not harm others 2 Politicking a Most decisions made ambiguously b Facts open to interpretation people can use influence to support own goals and interests c More likely to come about in organization when i Resources are declining ii Pattern of resources changing iii Opportunity for promotions VI Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior A Factors Contributing to Political Behavior What will increase political behavior 1 Individual Factors Ex 13 3 a High self monitors i Sensitive to social cues high levels of social conformity more skilled in political behavior than low self monitor b Internal locus of control c High Mach personality i Believe they can control their environment i Will to manipulate and desire for power use politics for self advancement d Organizational investment i The more perceived future benefits the more to lose if forced out more likely to use illegitimate means e Perceived job alternatives i Prominent reputation influential outside contacts more risky illegitimate political actions f Expectations of success i High expectations from highly experienced individuals as well as from na ve individuals who misjudge their chances 2 Organizational Factors Ex 13 3 a Reallocation of resources b Promotion opportunities c Low trust d Role ambiguity e Unclear performance evaluation system f Zero sum reward practices h Democratic decision making i High performance pressures Jaimie Lafferty j Self serving senior managers B How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics 1 Outcomes negative for those with modest political skill or those not willing to play the politics game 2 Organizational politics may threaten employees Ex 13 4 a Decreased job satisfaction b Increased anxiety and stress c Increased turnover d Reduced performance 3 Defensive Behaviors a Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action blame or change b Often related to negative feels towards job and work environment Ex 13 5 Avoiding Action Overconforming Buck passing Playing dumb Stretching Stalling Avoiding Blame Buffing Playing safe Justifying Scapegoating Misrepresenting Avoiding Change Prevention Self protection VII Impression Management A Impression Management IM Process by which individuals try to control impressions others form of them 1 Impression Management Techniques a Conformity b Favors c Excuses d Apologies e Self Promotion f Enhancement g Flattery h Exemplification VIII The Ethics of Behaving Politically A Must determine if it s worth the risk and if it will potentially do harm to

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