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INAG110 Final Study Guide Levels of Communicationo Intrapersonal- cognition or thought; communicating with oneselfo Interpersonal- communication between individuals in pairs; also called dyadic communicationo Group- three or more people interacting and hoping to influence one another to pursue a common goalo Public- one person communicating face to face with an audienceo Mass- one person or group communicating to a large audience through some print or electronic medium Elements of Communicationo Speaker- the sender, encoder, or source of the messageo Encoding- the process of selecting symbols to carry a messageo Message- ideas communicated verbally and nonverballyo Listener- the receiver, or decoder, of the messageo Decoding- the process of attaching meanings to symbols receivedo Feedback- verbal and nonverbal responses between communications about the clarity or acceptability of messageso Environment- the occasion, social context, and physical setting for communicationo Noise- anything that distracts from effective communicationo Physical noise- distractions originating in the bodies of communicatorso Critical thinking- the logical, reflective examination of information and ideas to determine what to believe or do Analyzing your Audienceo Demographics- characteristics of the audience, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, economic status, and group membershipo Audience segmentation- the strategy of dividing an audience into various subgroups based on their demographic and psychographic profileso Audience targeting- the strategy of directing a speech primarily toward one or more portions of the entire audience Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Models of Communicationo Triangleo Referent- object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbolo Circle (message  feedback) Methods of Deliveryo Impromptu- speaking without advance preparationo Memorized- delivering a speech that is recalled word forword from a written texto Manuscript- delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advanceo Extemporaneous- delivering a speech from notes or from a memorized outline Internal/External Noiseo Internal noise- psychological, occurs within the speakers thoughtso External noise- physical distractions that inhibit the speaker 4 S’so Signpost the ideao State the ideao Support the ideao Summarize the idea Introduction Techniqueso Personal story (anecdote)o Rhetorical questiono Statistico Quoteo Surprise, shocking statement Physical and Vocal Delivery Dramatic Pauses- intentional or unintentional period of silence in a speaker’s vocal delivery Decodero Decoding- the process of attaching meanings to symbols received Code of Ethics Types of Persuasive Speecheso Speech to convince- a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners’ beliefs or attitudeso Speech to actuate- a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners’ behaviorso Speech to inspire- a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners’ feelings Credibility- the degree to which listeners believe a speakero Initial- speakers reputation before speakingo Derived- image listeners develop of a speaker during speecho Terminal- reputation by the end of speech and for period of time after Symbol- anything to which people attach meaning Inflection- patterns of change in a person’s pitch while speaking Ethos, pathos, logoso Ethos- speaker credibilityo Pathos- emotional appealo Logos- logical appeal Eulogy- a speech in tribute praising a person who has recently died Communication Apprehension- the fear or anxiety associatedwith real or anticipated communication with another person or persons Visual Brainstormingo Visual web 3 A’so Audienceo Attentiono Anxiety Stacking the Deck- occurs during a persuasive speech when you present only your side and disregard any other existing opinions Levels of Influenceo Values  beliefs  attitudes 

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UMD INAG 110 - Final Study Guide

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