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Levels of Communication INAG110 Final Study Guide o Intrapersonal cognition or thought communicating with oneself o Interpersonal communication between individuals in pairs also called dyadic communication o Group three or more people interacting and hoping to influence one another to pursue a common goal o Public one person communicating face to face with an audience o Mass one person or group communicating to a large audience through some print or electronic medium Elements of Communication o Speaker the sender encoder or source of the message o Encoding the process of selecting symbols to carry a message o Message ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally o Listener the receiver or decoder of the message o Decoding the process of attaching meanings to symbols received o Feedback verbal and nonverbal responses between communications about the clarity or acceptability of messages o Environment the occasion social context and physical setting for communication o Noise anything that distracts from effective o Physical noise distractions originating in the bodies of communication communicators o Critical thinking the logical reflective examination of information and ideas to determine what to believe or do Analyzing your Audience o Demographics characteristics of the audience such as age gender ethnicity education religion economic status and group membership o Audience segmentation the strategy of dividing an audience into various subgroups based on their demographic and psychographic profiles o Audience targeting the strategy of directing a speech primarily toward one or more portions of the entire audience Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Models of Communication o Triangle o Referent object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbol o Circle message feedback Methods of Delivery o Impromptu speaking without advance preparation o Memorized delivering a speech that is recalled word for word from a written text o Manuscript delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advance o Extemporaneous delivering a speech from notes or from a memorized outline Internal External Noise o Internal noise psychological occurs within the speakers thoughts o External noise physical distractions that inhibit the speaker 4 S s o Signpost the idea o State the idea o Support the idea o Summarize the idea Introduction Techniques o Personal story anecdote o Rhetorical question o Statistic o Quote o Surprise shocking statement Physical and Vocal Delivery Dramatic Pauses intentional or unintentional period of silence in a speaker s vocal delivery Decoder o Decoding the process of attaching meanings to symbols received Code of Ethics Types of Persuasive Speeches o Speech to convince a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners beliefs or attitudes o Speech to actuate a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners behaviors o Speech to inspire a persuasive speech designed to influence listeners feelings Credibility the degree to which listeners believe a speaker o Initial speakers reputation before speaking o Derived image listeners develop of a speaker during o Terminal reputation by the end of speech and for speech period of time after Symbol anything to which people attach meaning Inflection patterns of change in a person s pitch while speaking Ethos pathos logos o Ethos speaker credibility o Pathos emotional appeal o Logos logical appeal Eulogy a speech in tribute praising a person who has recently died Communication Apprehension the fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another person or persons Visual Brainstorming o Visual web 3 A s o Audience o Attention o Anxiety Stacking the Deck occurs during a persuasive speech when you present only your side and disregard any other existing opinions Levels of Influence o Values beliefs attitudes attitudes

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UMD INAG 110 - Final Study Guide

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