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INAG110Ch1A. Communication the process of sharing meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cuesB. Interpreter any person using symbols to send or receive messagesC. Symbol anything to which people attach meaningD. Referent the object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbolE. The triangle of Meaninga.F. Levels of Communicationa. Intrapersonal cognition or thought communicating with oneselfb. Interpersonal Communicaiton communication between individuals in pairs also called dyadic communicationc. Group communication threeor more people interacting and hoping to influence one another to pursue a common goald. Public Communication Ch.6 Selecting Your Speech TopicA. fdsB.Ch.9 Organizing the Body of Your SpeechA.Ch10 Introducing and Concluding Your SpeechA. Introductiona. Strategies for Getting Your Audience’s Attentioni. Question your audienceii. Arouse curiosityiii. Stimulate imaginationiv. Promise something beneficialv. Amuse your audiencevi. Acknowledge and compliment your audiencevii. Audience Attention GettersInterpreterSymbolReferent1. Rhetorical Questions a question designed to stimulate thought without demanding overt response2. Direct question a question that asks for an overt responsefrom listenersb. State your topicc. Establish the importance of your topicd. Preview your key idease. Put it all togetherB. Organize the conclusion of your speecha. Summarize your key ideasb. Activate audience responsec. Provide closured.Ch. 13 Delivering Your SpeechA. Delivery the way a speaker presents a speech, through voice qualities, bodily actions, and languageB. Principles of Non-Verbal Communication:a. Part of your nonverbal communication is deliberate and part is unintentionalb. Few nonverbal signals have universal meaningsc. When a speaker’s verbal and nonverbal channels send conflicting messages we tend to trust the nonverbal messagesd. The message you intend may be overridden by the meanings people attach to your nonverbal communicationC. Methods of Delivery:a. Impromptu Speaking speaking without advanced preparationb. Speaking From Memory delivering a speech that is recalled word for word from a given textc. Speaking From Manuscript delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advancedd. Speaking Extemporaneously Delivering a speech from notes or froma memorized outlineD. Qualities of an Effective Delivery:a. Effective delivery helps both listeners and speakersb. The best delivery looks and feels natural, comfortable, and spontaneousc. Delivery is best when the audience is not aware of itE. Elements of Vocal Deliverya. Rate & pausei. Rate the speed at which a speech is deliveredii. Pause an intentional or unintentional period of silence in a speaker’s vocal deliveryiii. Vocalized Pauses sounds or words such as ah, like, okay, um, so, and you know inserted to fill the silence between a speaker’s words or thoughtsb. Volumei. Volume the relative loudness or softness of a speaker’s voicec. Pitch & inflationi. Pitch the highness or lowness of a speakers voiceii. Inflection patterns of change in a person’s pitch while speaking d. Articulation & Pronunciationi. Articulation the mechanical process of forming the sounds necessary to communicate in a particular languageii. Pronunciation how the sounds of a word are to be said and which parts are to be stressedF. Elements of Physical Deliverya. Posture the position or bearing of a speaker’s body while delivering a speechb. Facial Expression the tension and movement of various parts of a speaker’s facec. Eye contact gaze behavior in which a speaker looks at listener’s eyesd. Movement a speaker’s motion from place to place during speech deliverye. Gestures- movements of a speaker’s hands, arms, and head while delivering a speechCh16 The Strategy of PersuasionA. The Importance of Persuasiona. As a Speaker:i. Challenges you to select topics important to your audienceii. Evaluate possible supporting materialiii. Construct valid/compelling argumentsb. As a Listener: i. Learn objectivelyii. Evaluate thoughtfullyiii. Respond responsiblyB. Persuasion- the process of influencing another person’s beliefs, values, attitudes, or behaviorsC. Types of influencea. Change a value, belief, attitude, or behaviori. Attempt to change opposition to supportii. Change their behaviorb. Instill a value, attitude, belief, or behaviori. Address a particular problem about which listeners are unaware or undecidedii. If you persuade that your problem exists you instill a beliefc. Intensifyi. Must know before speech whether your audience members agree with your position or notii. If they agreegoal is to strengthen your listener’s positionD. Types of Persuasive Speechesa. Speech to Convince designed to influence listener’s beliefs and attitudesi. Speaker’s purpose: to establish belief, NOT to secure an actionb. To Actuate designed to influence listener’s behaviori. Calls for the audience to actc. To Inspire designed to influence listener’s feelingsi. Attempts to change how listeners feelii. Pep talk, motivational speechE. Persuasive Speaking Strategiesa. Establish your Credibilityi. ETHOSii. Credibility the degree to which listenr believes the speakeriii. Stages of credibility1. Initial credibility a speaker’s image or reputation before speaking to a particular audience2. Derived credibility the image listers develop of a speakeras he or she speaks3. Terminal credibility the image listeners develop of a speaker by the end of a speech and for a period of rime after itiv. Components of Credibility1. Convey Competencea. Competence listener’s view of speakers qualifications to speak on a particular topcb. Know your subjectc. Document your ideasd. Cite your sourcese. Acknowledge personal involvement2. Convey Trustworthinessa. Trustworthiness listener’s view of a speakers honesty and objectivityb. Establish common ground with audiencec. Demonstrate objectivity in approaching the topicd. Convey dynamismi. Dynamism listener’s view of a speaker’s confidence, energy, and enthusiasm for communicationb. Focus your Goalsi. Limit your goals1. Limited rather than globalii. Argue incrementally:c. Connect with Your Listenersi. Establish common ground with audienceii. Asses listener’s knowledge of the topiciii. Access how important audience considers your topiciv. Motivate your listenersv.

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UMD INAG 110 - Study Guide

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