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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 252 - Homework 6 KEY

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Homework 6 (Lessons 15-17) Q1. A drug that serves as a diuretic is often prescribed for patients with hypotension. ( ) True (X) False Q2. In comparison to a vessel with a large diameter, a vessel with a small diameter has: [ ] Faster blood flow [ ] Lower blood pressure [x] Higher peripheral resistance Q3. Blood flows through the capillaries the fastest because they are the smallest vessels in diameter. ( ) True (X) False Q4. A myocardial infarction (heart attack) is an example of a fused tetanus in cardiac tissue. ( ) True (X) False Q5. Why does cigarette smoking put someone at risk for developing high blood pressure? ( ) Nicotine causes cardiac output to be reduced (X) Nicotine is a vasoconstrictor ( ) Nicotine serves as a diuretic Q6. An individual at rest has a heart rate of 85 beats/minute, end-diastolic volume (EDV) of 180 mL, and end-systolic volume (ESV) of 30 mL. Based on their cardiac output (which you will need to calculate), what can you conclude about this individual? [x] The individual will have hypertension [ ] The individual will have hypotension [ ] The individual will be an endurance athlete Q7. You are a nurse in an Emergency Room and have a patient come in that has a mean arterial pressure of 62 mmHg. Which of the following should you do immediately? [x] Give the patient epinephrine [ ] Give the patient a Ca2+ channel inhibitor [x] Start an IV in the patientQ8. Charlie suffers from chronic hypertension (140 / 95 mmHg). How many of the therapeutics below would be appropriate to help Charlie manage his blood pressure? 1) Prednisone 2) Diuretic 3) Beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitor 4) Synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide ( ) 0 of the above would be appropriate ( ) 1 of the above would be appropriate ( ) 2 of the above would be appropriate (X) 3 of the above would be appropriate ( ) 4 of the above would be appropriate Q9. A virus infection can only activate one division of the immune system at a time. ( ) True (X) False Q10. The Pfizer and Moderna coronavirus vaccine has been shown to be 90% effective and have received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration. The vaccine works by introducing mRNA that code for a SARS CoV-2-specific spike protein into host cells, resulting in the host cells expressing the viral protein. One of the reported side effects of the vaccine is pain, swelling, and redness in the area where the vaccine is administered for 24-48 hours. Which best describes why this side effect is actually a good thing in patients who receive this vaccine? ( ) Because B cells differentiate into plasma cells and antibody production starts within 48 hours of antigen exposure. (X) Because dendritic cells and macrophages activate and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines within 48 hours of antigen exposure. ( ) Because toll-like receptors expressed by the host cell recognize the presence of intracellular protein and produce cytokines within 48 hours of antigen exposure. ( ) Because cytotoxic T cells become activated and kill host cells expressing the coronavirus spike protein with 48 hours of antigen exposure. Q11. Which of the following are ways that antibodies can act? ( ) Antibodies can bind to viruses inside of cells to target the cells for destruction ( ) Antibodies can bind to bacteria inside of cells to target bacteria for destruction ( ) Antibodies can directly poke holes in cells that are infected with virus as a means to kill them (X) Antibodies can bind to viruses and prevent them from infecting cellsQ12. Which of the following are examples of passive immunity? (select all that apply) [ ] A neutrophil migrates to the epidermis and phagocytoses pathogenic S. aureus (bacterial species) [x] A hospital worker exposed to SARS CoV-2 receives serum from a patient who has previously recovered from COVID [ ]A patient with rheumatoid arthritis is given a drug that blocks the activity of tumor necrosis factor Q13. How many of the following are components of the innate immune system? - Antibodies - Complement cascade - Toll-like receptors - Helper T cells - Dendritic cells ( ) 0 of the above ( ) 1 of the above ( ) 2 of the above (X) 3 of the above ( ) 4 of the above ( ) 5 of the above Q14. Which of the following are outcomes of complement cascade activation? [ ] Vasoconstriction [x] Chemotaxis [x] Opsonization of bacteria [x] Formation of the membrane attack complex [ ] Activation of toll-like receptors Q15. Whitney has a genetic disorder where the zymogens within her neutrophil granules are mutated, such that they do not become activated, even in the presence of their activating enzyme. Whitney will therefore be at an increased risk of developing: (X) Opportunistic bacterial infections ( ) Opportunistic viral infections ( ) Auto-immune disorders ( )

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