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UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 252 - Homework 3 KEY

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Homework 3 (Lessons 6-8) A type 1 diabetic that injects themselves with high amounts of insulin after eating a steak is at risk of becoming hypoglycemic. (X) True ( ) False The endocrine and nervous system are both capable of transmitting involuntary signals. (X) True ( ) False Neurotransmitters released by hypothalamic neurons stimulate hormone production in the posterior pituitary ( ) True (X) False A drug that serves as a competitive inhibitor for an enzyme involved in the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver would be a suitable therapeutic for a person with type 2 diabetes. (X) True ( ) False A recent publication in the Journal of Lipid Research has revealed that women are twice as likely to suffer from gallstone disease than men, which is due to an estrogen-dependent mechanism (estrogen is derived from cholesterol). Most individuals who develop gallbladder disease end up having their gallbladders surgically removed, which can lead to further complications. How many of the pharmaceutical approaches below would be suitable for non-surgical treatment of estrogen-dependent gallbladder disease in women? 1) A chemical that binds estrogen and prohibits it from entering into the cell 2) A chemical that inhibits the estrogen receptor from entering into the nucleus 3) A protein that prohibits adenylate cyclase activation ( ) 0 of the above mentioned pharmaceutic options would be suitable to explore ( ) 1 of the above mentioned pharmaceutic options would be suitable to explore (X) 2 of the above mentioned pharmaceutic options would be suitable to explore ( ) 3 of the above mentioned pharmaceutic options would be suitable to exploreWhich of the following does NOT appropriately describe one of the four ways in which information is obtained by sensory receptors? ( ) The location it maps to along the primary somatosensory cortex ( ) The frequency of action potentials that are generated (X) The type of action potential that is generated ( ) The speed in which sensory receptors adapt to signals ( ) The number of sensory receptors that are activated ( ) Two or more of the above do not appropriately describe how information is obtained by sensory receptors You want to develop a novel drug to reduce chronic high blood pressure in patients. Which of the following would serve as a suitable option? ( ) Develop a selective antagonist to cholinergic nicotinic receptors ( ) Develop a selective antagonist to cholinergic muscarinic receptors ( ) Develop a selective antagonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (X) Develop a selective antagonist of beta-1 adrenergic receptors ( ) Two or more of the above options would serve as suitable therapeutics When a neonate suckles on the nipple of their mother to nurse, oxytocin is produced by the mother’s hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary, before being secreted into the blood stream to act on the mammary gland to allow for milk let down. This type of endocrine stimulation is known as: (X) Neural stimulation ( ) Hormonal stimulation ( ) Humoral stimulation It’s a very stressful day for you – you have an Anatomy & Physiology exam, an interview for your dream job, and you woke up to the news that COVID-19 is delaying the release of the next season of your favorite TV show, the Great British Bake Off. How many of the hormones would you expect to be systemically elevated throughout your very stressful day? 1) Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) 2) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 3) Epinephrine 4) Insulin ( ) 0 of the above hormones would be elevated ( ) 1 of the above hormones would be elevated ( ) 2 of the above hormones would be elevated (X) 3 of the above hormones would be elevated( ) 4 of the above hormones would be elevated You are an endocrinologist and have been referred a patient who complains of being constantly cold and having a difficult time losing weight (their body mass index or BMI is in the overweight range). Which of the following treatments do you recommend first to your patient? ( ) Glucocorticoids ( ) Calcium supplement (X) Iodide supplement ( ) Growth hormone supplements Which of the following neurotransmitters would you expect to be released if you were to see a copperhead snake while out for your leisurely evening stroll (assume you are scared of copperhead snakes)? ( ) Acetylcholine ( ) Epinepherine ( ) Norepinepherine ( ) Two of the above (X) Three of the above How many of the statements below are TRUE regarding sensory receptors? 1) Stimulation of sensory receptors automatically cause the membrane to depolarize beyond threshold 2) Mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors are examples of exteroceptors and are found exclusively on the skin 3) Hair follicle receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the skin within the ear and are involved in regulation of the vestibular system (X) 0 of the above statements are true ( ) 1 of the above statements are true ( ) 2 of the above statements are true ( ) 3 of the above statements are true You are a nurse practitioner in a primary care office and a new patient comes in for the first time concerned that they are putting on excessive weight in their midsection. They explain that they have been on a healthy diet low in carbohydrates and sweets and exercise 3-5 times per week. You do some blood work and determine that the patient is hyperglycemic. Further, you notice that the individual has an elevated blood pressure and has early signs of osteoporosis. Which of the following does NOT explain your patient’s symptoms and your clinical observations (assume that tumors result in overproduction of hormones associated with the cells/organ)?( ) The patient has a tumor in the zona fasciculata region of the adrenal cortex ( ) The patient has a tumor in the anterior pituitary gland (X) The patient has a tumor originating in the beta cells in the pancreas ( ) The patient has a tumor originating in the alpha cells in the pancreas Gemma (a 35-year old woman) is a new patient in your family practice and you ask her to complete some blood work before coming in for her initial appointment. Because diabetes runs in her family, you ask her to take a fasting blood glucose test. You also evaluate the levels of other hormones to get a clear picture of Gemma’s health. Before Gemma’s appointment, you spend a few minutes reviewing the lab results and find something that is concerning. Specifically, you find that Gemma’s serum concentration of


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