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NAU BIO 205L - Simonovic_Kristina_MWA4

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Kristina SimonovicBIO305W Sec 16Heather Gillette02 April 2018DISCUSSIONThe underlying purpose of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify the genus of an unknown bacterium sampled from soil in Flagstaff, AZ. Identification of the bacterium waspossible through the results of specific biochemical tests which characterized the environmental isolate (EI). Important characteristics were considered and compared with closely related genera of endospore forming Gram positive rods and cocci. The EI bacterium was endospore forming, meaning it had endured living in harsh environments under stressful conditions. The capability toproduce endospores was essential for reproduction and survival of the cell. In addition, the EI bacterium was Gram positive, which indicated a thick peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. An advantage to having a thick peptidoglycan layer is substantial protection of the cell from the environment, which is essential for soil bacteria due to weather conditions in the environment. The EI bacterium was motile meaning it was able to move around freely in its environment. Motility is often seen in soil bacteria due to the need to move throughout the soil in order to obtain certain nutrients needed for survival. The EI bacterium was catalase positive, meaning it contained the enzyme catalase, which detoxifies the cell. Many strains of soil bacteria contain catalase, because as decomposers, these cells breakdown and remove toxins found in soil, while converting the toxins into energy. The EI tested positive for glucose marking acidity, meaning thecell was able to breakdown glucose into a simpler form, from which it would benefit. Thefollowing characteristics obtained from the results of the biochemical test were crucial in the identification process of the EI. The biochemical test results determined the EI bacterium to be an endospore forming Gram positive rod, requiring Table 18.1 in Bergey’s Manual to be used (Holt et al. 2000). The results from the biochemical tests performed on the EI were taken into account, which narrowed down the possibilities of genera through process of elimination. A positive result for glucose fermentation marking acidity indicated that the EI was one of four genera, Amphibacillus, Bacillus, Sporohalobacter or Sporolactobacillus (Table 2). A positive result for catalase eliminated three of the four possible genera, Amphibacillus, Sporohalobacter and Sporolactobacillus (Table 2). Therefore, due to the positive result for catalase, the genus of the EI was identified as Bacillus (Table 2). Table 2. The characteristics of the EI collected from soil in Flagstaff, AZ compared with possibleclosely related genera for endospore forming Gram positive rods and cocci.The genus of the EI was identified as Bacillus due to having completely matched up all ofthe traits with the EI’s traits, determined through biochemical tests. The EI resulted in positive tests for motility, catalase, and acidity from glucose, which also holds true for Bacillus. Additionally, Bacillus is a Gram positive rod, which is also the case of the EI. The genus Bacillus is primarily found in soil environments because it favors mutualistic relationships, in which it benefits from it’s habitat while the habitat also benefits from the microbe’s presence (Bron et al. 2013). Bacillus has a rapid growth rate and survives best at room temperature (Bron et al. 2013). The EI had been sampled from soil in Flagstaff, AZ, and was grown in room temperature over the course of two days, further confirming Bacillus as the genus. Moreover, Bacillus is endospore forming under hostile conditions and extreme environmental stress, which the EI tested positive for. A correlation of 6/6 presented significant evidence that the correct genus of the EI was in fact Bacillus.There are many significant factors that show the importance that soil microbiology has onthe environment. Life on this planet directly relies on the ecosystem to sustain existence and reproduction. The conditions of the ecosystem have drastically declined and human impact is the leading cause. Bioremediation is centralized upon microbial activity within the environment. SoilCharacteristicsEI AmphibacillusBacillus SporohalobacterSporolactobacillusRod + + + + +Endospores produced+ + + + +Motile + + + + +Gram’s positive + + + + +Catalase + - + - -Marked Acidityfrom Glucose+ + + + +Habitat Soil Water Soil, Water, FoodHypersaline EnvironmentsSoil, Dairy, FermentationEI correlation N/a 5/6 6/6 5/6 5/6microbes are ecologically beneficial due to their ability to decompose organic matter as well as transform nutrients (Morales et al. 2016). Furthermore, soil bacterial communities aid in nutrient cycling, allowing for the bacteria to secrete biopolymer degrading enzymes that will decompose plant matter and in turn release nutrients into the soil (Morales et al. 2016). Through enriching the soil with microbes, it is possible to completely breakdown pollutants within the soil (Fuentes et al 2014). By the process of bioremediation, soil microbes are capable of restoring the ecosystem over time. Future research would be beneficial in determining the effects that specific strains of Bacillus have in regards to the process of bioremediation. Specific strains of Bacillus would be chosen in order to target certain types of bioremediation. Human’s depend on the ecosystem in all aspects of survival whether it’s a source of food, antibiotic medication, oxygen, etc. This major advancement is highly cost effective as well as sustainable and has the potential to restore the compromised conditions of Earth’s ecosystem. REFERENCESBron S, Meima R, Maarten van Dijl J, Wipat A, Harwood C. 2013. Molecular Biology and Genetics of Bacillus species. Wiley. 1(1):4-49.Fuentes S, Mendez V, Aguila P, Seeger M. 2014. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications. Applied Microbio and Biotech.98(11):4781-4794.Hawksworth DL. 1991. The Biodiversity of microorganisms and invertebrates: its role in sustainable agriculture. WEFSA. 1(29):133-133.Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PHA, Staley JT, Williams ST. 2000. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Morales D, Vargas M, M de Oliveira M, P Taffe B, L Comin J, Soares CR, Lovato, P. 2016. Response of soil microbiota to nine-year application of swine manure and urea. Ciência Rural. 46(2):260-266.Shand R,


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