UB GEO 103LEC - OLec9 City3 (42 pages)

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OLec9 City3



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OLec9 City3

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Pages:
42
School:
University at Buffalo-SUNY
Course:
Geo 103lec - Global Econ Geographies
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Central Places and Cities 103 10d Idea of gravity cities exert a gravitational pull on activities cities function as central places and support activities around them cities service areas around them hinterlands or urban fields Strength of influence A B Distance mi Identify market or trade area to businesses Friction of distance in gravity and hence market influence 1 Definitions Central Place Theory Hinterlands areas market or trade areas that a city serves e g market area may be measured in terms of newspaper circulation or telephone class or journey to work Threshold minimum number of people or demand volume of sales required to stay in business Range maximum distance customers willing to travel to purchase a good or service or perform a function Order of good function interaction of threshold and range Bread Low threshold and range low order good function Brain surgery high threshold and range high order good function 2 Some tentative conclusions 1 Low order goods and function are more abundant in space 2 Higher order goods and functions are fewer in space 3 Smaller cities have more lower order goods functions 4 Larger cities have more higher order goods functions Hierarchy of cities hamlets towns cities 3 Walter Christaller s Central Place Theory CPT A Central Place is a settlement which provides one or more services for the population living around it Postulates that cities are central places which are organized in a hierarchical manner small towns have only lower order goods functions and there are many small towns Bigger cities have higher order goods functions and fewer of them D e n v e r 4 Assumptions of central place theory Isotropic plane Uniform distribution of demand and population Cities depend solely on hinterland trade No government or social class Transportation costs are equal Ubiquitous production input at same price 5 Why are there very few large settlements K 3 marketing principle A city B town each B town is midway between 3 big A cities 1 3 customers and A is surrounded by 6 B towns market area for A 1 3 6 1 3 ideal geometrical form hexagonal 7 A City A City A B Town B city C F E town D City A 1 3 of pop to cities from town 8 The high order 3rd order settlement A in the middle is surrounded by medium order settlements black dots and lower order settlements small red dots These consumers are attracted in equal amounts to whichever large central place is nearby Example the highlighted lower order settlement village X will have 1 3 of its consumers go to the city settlement A and 1 3 will go to town Y and 1 3 will go to town Z middle order settlements All the other lower order settlements red dots will follow the same pattern Y Settlement X Z Why is K 3 called K 3 Hint look at the numbers of consumers who visit the highest order settlement 9 Summary of Central Place Theory CPT Gas stations 1 The larger the settlements the fewer their number 2 The larger a settlement the farther away a similar size settlement is 3 The range increases as the population increases 4 The larger the settlement the higher the order of its services Roswell Cancer Center Deviations to this rule are Tourist resorts that have a small population but large number of functions Dormitory towns e g commuter towns that have a large population but a small number of functions 10 Rank size rule Rank size distribution If all cities are ranked in descending order then the size of Citynth 1 r population of largest city r rank City population mi A 10 1 B 9 2 C 8 3 rank Theoretically if this urban system is rank size then City A 10mi City B 5mi 1 2 City C 3 33mi 1 3 City D 2 5 mi 1 4 D 7 4 Population of Cityc 1 3 10 3 33 mi Note population should be log linear when plotted 11 Rank Size Rule Example 1 2 3 4 5 Largest City 2nd largest City 3rd Largest City 4th Largest City 5th Largest City 1 000 000 1 1 500 000 1 2 333 333 1 3 250 000 1 4 200 000 1 5 12 Name Population Charlotte 630 478 2 Raleigh 356 321 3 Greensboro 236 865 RS 210 159 4 Durham 209 009 5 WinstonSalem 196 990 6 Fayetteville 168 033 7 Cary 112 414 8 High Point 97 796 9 Wilmington 95 944 10 Asheville 72 789 11 Greenville 72 052 12 Gastonia 69 904 13 Jacksonville 69 688 Rank Size Rule1 RS 1 2 630 478 315 239 13 Germany Does this fit the Rank Size Rule ACTUAL POPULATION RANK SIZE RULE RANK SIZE RULE EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS 1 Berlin 3 390 000 2 Hamburg 1 700 000 3 M nchen 1 300 000 4 K ln 965 000 5 Frankfurt 640 000 6 Essen 590 000 7 Dortmund 589 000 8 Stuttgart 587 000 1 Berlin 3 390 000 12 Berlin 3 3901 000 Hamburg 195 000 2 Hamburg 1 195 000 3 M nchen 1 130 000 3 M nchen 1 130 000 847 4 K ln 847500 500 5 Frankfurt 678 000 5 Frankfurt 678 000 6 Essen 565 000 6 Essen 565000 000 7 Dortmund 484 87 Stuttgart Dortmund 424 000 484 000 8 Stuttgart 424 000 Primate Cities A country s leading city is always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant Mark Jefferson 1939 15 Primate City The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country For example London UK Bangkok Thailand Paris France the rank size rule does not work for a country with a primate city 16 Primate City Largest City Population Bangkok Paris London 6 million 9 million 9 million Paris Second largest City Chiang Mai Marseille Birmingham Population 1 million 2 million 2 million Bangkok 17 Primacy Primate city defined when the largest city is at least twice usually many times more larger than the second largest city Population Rank size primacy Rank Bangkok Chiangmai CP determined by number and order of central functions goods offered by the place functional hierarchy RS based on actual size of city centers not functional size 18 Difference between CPT and rank size CPT s notion that cities are central places and spatially organized in a hierarchical form Rank size is interested in issues of resource allocation and regional development 19 CPT and World Global Cities Cities allow appropriation of economic surplus Cities differ in scope of hinterlands and trade areas hence are arranged hierarchically Global cities as super world cities NYC Tokyo and London Rise of world and global cities due to internationalization of trade investment and finance 20 Features of World Cities Act as command and control centers home to financial firms producer services and corporate headquarters Endowed with


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