UB GEO 103LEC - OLec6 Transportation (39 pages)

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OLec6 Transportation



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OLec6 Transportation

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Pages:
39
School:
University at Buffalo-SUNY
Course:
Geo 103lec - Global Econ Geographies

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Chapter 9 Transportation and Information Technology GEOGRAPHY OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Transportation Networks in Historical Perspective History of transportation 1 Water transport rivers canals oceans to 1800s 2 Railroads 3 James Watt s steam engine 1769 on locomotives in 1829 First electric streetcar in 1888 Richmond VA Roads and motor vehicles 4 Active canal building during early Industrial Revolution 1700s Application of steam engine in 1807 Opening of Suez Canal 1869 and Panama Canal 1914 Initially roads were feeders to railroads In United States heavy reliance on automobile Air travel For passengers and high value goods Transportation Networks in Historical Perspective continued History of transportation continued FIGURE 9 5 The Panama 1914 and Suez 1869 canals greatly shortened world shipping routes reflecting and contributing to the time space compression of the Industrial Revolution and the new geographies it brought into being Time space Convergence or Compression Distance Decay Attenuation or reduction in the flow or movement among places with increasing distance between them Underlying principle of distance decay is the friction of distance costs of overcoming space Transportation improvements result in timespace convergence or compression where travel between two distant areas is compressed in time Cost space Convergence or Compression continued Reduction in costs leads to cost space convergence Cost space compression altered the geographies of centrality and peripherality cost space convergence arises when deregulation leads to a fall in cost of travel Cheaper more efficient modes of transport widened the range of distances over which goods could be shipped Developments in transportation have also cut travel times extensively Air transportation provides a spectacular example of cost and time space convergence Time space Convergence or Compression continued FIGURE 9 7 Time space FIGURE 9 8 Cost space convergence in convergence between London and Edinburgh telephone calls between New York City and San Francisco 1915 2000 Time Space Convergenc e 7 Transportation Infrastructure Infrastructures allow countries to specialize in production and trade and form integrated spatial divisions of labor e g Singapore and Hawaii islands Fast and efficient transportation systems allow the development of natural resources regional specialization of production and internal trade among regions Transportation Infrastructure continued FIGURE 9 9 Major world roads and highways Note All areas within the United States Europe India Southeastern Australia and New Zealand are virtually within 25 miles of roads and highways Personal Mobility 10 Rise in personal mobility increased number of households with vehicles Trip purposes vs Trip length journey to work 1 2 social recreational 2 1 other family personal 3 3 3 Shopping 4 4 http www fhwa dot gov policyinformation pubs pl08021 fig4 4 cfm Gender differences spatial entrapment L8 11 L8 Figure 9 16 of text 12



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