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UConn PSYC 1103 - Infant Temperament

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PSYCH 1103 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Teratogensa. Leadb. Cigarette smokec. Alcohold. Pharmaceuticals e. PCB’sf. Insecticides II. Neonatal reflexes a. Breathingb. Suckingc. Rootingd. Moroe. Grasping f. Lack of reflexesg. Disappearance of reflexes III. Early social interaction IV. Attachment a. Harry Harlowb. Konrad Lorenzc. Human attachment Outline of Current Lecture I. Attachment cont.II. Infant temperament III. Early cognitiona. What do infants know about the world?IV. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development a. Stage theory of development b. Knowledge acquisition c. Object concept Current LectureI. Attachment cont.a. Based on secure/insecure attachment at infancy will determine their emotional standpoint with everyone in their lifei. Transfer it to friendships, romantic relationshipsii. Base model for all subsequent relationshipsII. Infant temperament a. Scale down version of personality i. Developmental root of personality ii. Stable traits that predict later aspects of personalities 1. Prevailing mood 2. Intensity of emotional response 3. Threshold of response a. How much stimulation does it take to get an emotional response?4. Extroversion a. Degree in which you are a social, outgoing person b. Jerome Kagan i. Certain aspects in 4 month olds predict shyness or outgoingness later on in life ii. How infants handle their early emotional experiences which tells him what will happen later on iii. Inverse relationship you see early and later behaviors1. Ex: really excited infants (becoming over stimulated very easily) will later on be more withdraw from social stimulation because it will be too much III. Early cognition a. What do infants know about the world?i. Innate ideas (Jean Jacques Rousseau)1. You must have some basic, set structure of how the world works2. Geometry: fundamental postulates of Euclid 3. Basic object properties: permanence, identity, transformations 4. Categorical structures: animate vs. inanimate, solids vs. liquids ii. Learned ideas (John Locke)1. Ideas aren’t given by biological predisposition 2. Ideas are constructed through interactions with the world 3. The world could be a radically different place, given a different set of constructions iii. These positions are both difficult to hold IV. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development a. Stage theory of developmenti. Sensorimotor 1. 0-2 yearsii. Preoperational1. You can think about things that aren’t present, but you don’t do it very well (can’t do operations very well)2. 2-7 yearsiii. Concrete operations1. Can work with things in a sophisticated kind of way2. Work best when things are concrete (right in front of you)3. 7-12 yearsiv. Formal operations1. Logical, structured things dominate your thoughts 2. Have an idea of how things should work 3. 12+ b. Described knowledge acquisition as a growth processi. Driven by interactions with the environmentii. But constrained by biology in various ways1. Body properties 2. Fundamental processes c. Object concept i. Children develop a concept of “object” that includes “permanence” 1. When you take an object and put it out of sight, child thinks the object seized to existii. Adaptation 1. Assimilation a. Process of taking in the environment with the structures they havei. Ex: Taking in food by grasping it 2. Accommodation a. Process of changing current schemas to fit environment iii. A-not-B error1. A and B refer to different locations2. Children initially “search” for a hidden objecta. Children will continuously look under location A for object even though other person put object under location B right in front of them 3. But concept is still under development 4. Piaget argued that this error was due to incomplete conceptual separation of object and


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